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Aircraft Cabin Air


2019-08-22, at 11:36 local, 21:36 UTC: Hawaiian Airlines, A321neo; Emergency landing and evacuation; Smoke on board
Hawaiian Airlines, smoke in cabin
An analysis of the sequence of events!

Aviation Herald: Accident: Hawaiian A21N near Honolulu on Aug 22nd 2019, fumes and smoke on board prompt evacuation

Aviation Herald: Accident: British Airways A321 at Valencia on Aug 5th 2019, smoke on board

Aviation Herald: Incident: Indigo A320neo at Kolkata on Dec 10th 2018, smoke on board
Impressive Video. My Comment on Twitter and and My Contribution on Twitter to the Discussion. "The occurrence was rated a serious incident and is being investigated by the AIB". Telegraph 2018-12-13: Bearing-oil leak blamed for IndiGo cabin smoke.


The air you breathe on an aircraft may not be as good as you had hoped for. Coming to this page, you probably know already. If is all new to you, read my German Memo or watch the English videos at the bottom of the page.

On this page:

related to Aircraft Cabin Air Quality / Contamination.

Reach this page via


1 Own Contributions

1.1 Papers, Presentations, Memos

Author Title Type of Work Delivered No of Pages Occasion / Purpose Abstract Full Text Size
Dieter Scholz New
englisch Congress on Poisoned Aircraft Cabin Air - First Solutions to the Problem Become Visible
Press Release 24.09.19 6 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019
Summary of Technical Key Findings
--- *.pdf  577K
Dieter Scholz New
englisch Cabin Air Contamination – A Summary of Engineering Arguments
Presentation 18.09.19 35 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019
Imperial College London, 17 - 18 September 2019
--- *.pdf  2.2M
Dieter Scholz englisch Contaminated Aircraft Cabin Air - An Aeronautical Engineering Perspective Presentation 27.05.19 60 Meeting 2019, Association des Victimes du Syndrome Aérotoxique (AVSA), Paris CDG Airport, France, 27.05.2019 --- *.pdf  3.2M
Dieter Scholz englisch A Quick Introduction to the Problem of Cabin Air Contamination Presentation 12.03.19 4 Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin, 12.03.2019 --- *.pdf  373K
Dieter Scholz englisch Technical Solutions to the Problem of Contaminated Cabin Air Presentation 05.09.18 76 Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2018, Friedrichshafen (Germany), 04.-06.09.2018 *.html *.pdf  4.4M
Dieter Scholz englisch Jet Engines – Bearings, Seals and Oil Consumption Memo 02.04.18 22 Review to substantiate the calculation of the oil concentration in aircraft cabins *.html *.pdf  2.2M
Dieter Scholz englisch Cabin Air Contamination - An Aeronautical Perspective Presentation 16.03.18 73 59. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e.V., Dresden (Germany), 16. März 2018 *.html *.pdf  5.0M
Dieter Scholz deutsch Belastete Kabinenluft in Flugzeugen - Flugzeugbau-Experte Dieter Scholz sieht Handlungsbedarf Interview 06.12.17 4 Hinweis: Dies ist eine etwas
vollständigere Version des Interviews
als im Themendienst der HAW Hamburg vom 03.04.2018
Streichungen der Pressestelle sind hervorgehoben.
--- *.pdf  501K
Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air - Quality or Contamination? Presentation 20.11.17 48 Personalversammlung "Kabine"
Deutsche Lufthansa AG
Frankfurt, 20 November 2017
--- *.pdf  4.1M
Dieter Scholz deutsch Die Luft in der Kabine von Passagierflugzeugen ist nicht so gut wie oft angenommen - Hintergründe, Lösungsmöglichkeiten und deren Umsetzung Memo 01.10.17 4 Populärwissenschaftliche Darstellung und Einführung --- *.pdf  329K
Dieter Scholz New
englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View
Paper 17.09.19 6 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017
Imperial College London, 19 - 20 September 2017
*.html *.pdf  767K
Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View Presentation 19.09.17 72 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017
Imperial College London, 19 - 20 September 2017
*.html *.pdf  6.0M
Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - A Systems Engineering View
Presentation 27.04.17 75 Hamburg Aerospace Lecture Series (HALS)
together with VC and UFO
HAW Hamburg, 27 April 2017
*.html *.pdf  7.2M
Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air & Water Contamination/Quality – An Aircraft Systems Engineering Perspective Presentation 01.04.14 46 QCAQE – Global Cabin Air Quality Executive
London, 31 March – 2 April 2014
--- *.pdf   37M
Presentations are based on one another - extended through the years; shortened for the audience and allocated time.


1.2 Videos

YouTube Playlist: Cabin Air (Uploads to YouTube by Prof. Scholz) Pin
YouTube Playlist: Cabin Air (Video LINKS)

englisch Presentation at the International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017

deutsch Dieter Scholz im Interview bei:
ZDFzoom - Dicke Luft im Flieger (2017)

deutsch Dieter Scholz im Interview bei:
Deutschlandfunk Nova - Kabinenluft (2017)



2 Media Coverage (selected)

Piloten klagen über Gesundheitsprobleme deutsch

Schwäbische, 2018-10-22: Piloten klagen über Gesundheitsprobleme (PDF), (User=cabinair=PW)
In Web.Archive.


Die ZEIT: Gift in der Kabine? deutsch

Die ZEIT, 2017-10-19: Gift in der Kabine? (PDF), (Interview u.a. mit Prof. Scholz) (User=cabinair=PW)
Siehe auch: ZEIT ONLINE, in Web.Archive.


Sunday Times: EasyJet is First Airline to Go for Total Cabin Air Filtration

Sunday Times, 2017-09-17: Article (PDF) (User=cabinair=PW), Video.

ORF2, KONKRET, 2017-09-22, 18:30: Video (Interview e.g. with Prof. Scholz).
ORF2, ZIB2, 2017-09-22, 22:00: Video (Interview e.g. with Prof. Scholz), Transcript, in Web.Archive.


EasyJet to go for Cabin Air Filtration in the Recirculation Path

Pall had announced already on 2016-12-05 (Web.Archive) that EasyJet would retrofit their fleet of A320 family aircraft with the latest Pall Aerospace PUREair Advanced Cabin Air Filters [in the recirculation].


3 Action

3.1 CO Detectors

Sensors have been demanded by pilots and cabin crew for years, but they are still not introduced on board. There may be good reasons for NOT introducing air quality sensors on passenger aircraft. However, every individual on an aircraft may decide to get informed and this can not be denied. Therefore, immediate action could be taken without waiting for the ultimate industry solution of the problem - which may never come. This is especially important in failure cases like fume events. Failures compromising cabin air quality may alert people on board, but it may need some kind of objective confirmation before action can be taken. Situations with cabin air quality problems could also pass unnoticed without sensing. If cabin air is contaminated, it will show a mixture of many substances. Carbon monoxide (CO) will most probably be one of these substances. Simple logic tells us that it is sufficient to trace one bad gas in an abnormal quantity to conclude that the cabin air is not ok. CO is taken from the cocktail to be measured, because inexpensive and small CO detectors are available on the market. Pilots (cabin crew, passengers) should read the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration from a personal CO detector as an objective indicator in addition to the observations from their senses (nose and eyes). It is known from CO measurements on the BAe 146 that the CO concentration will be low even in a fume event [1]. For this reason, the CO concentration should not be compared against the limit value of 50 ppm (CS 25.831), but rather against values obtained under normal conditions (e.g. 2 ppm; as a frequent flyer you will find out for yourself soon).

[1] Global Cabin Air Quality Executive: Carbon Monoxide Database Collated on 345 BAe 146 Flights in UK, 2003-2004, 2006 (access difficult, but contact GCAQE for more information if you are desperate)

Feel free to report/share your findings. E.g. take a picture of your CO detector with its reading (maybe with a fume filled cabin in the background) and report about what happened to people during that flight. We may all learn from this collected information.

I have expressed the above view in my presentations and have been asked where inexpensive(!) CO detectors can be bought. Looking on the Internet myself, I discovered these links:

Inexpensive Instant CO Sensors:
UYIGAO UA6070 CO Detector (identical to KXL-801) --- Features: loud alarm
KXL-801 CO Detector (identical to UYIGAO UA6070) --- Video Test
KKmoon GM8805 CO Detector --- Features: data hold, alarm threshold can be set. Video Test. Manual (PDF)
AS8700A CO Detector --- Features: data hold
HT-530 CO Detector --- Features: clip to attach to clothes
KXL-601 Mini CO Detector (low budget device) --- User report: "very inaccurate", "not recommended"


Affordable CO Datalogger:
Lascar Electronics EL-USB-CO300 Carbon Monoxide Datalogger



3.2 Breathing Masks

Each member of the cockpit crew is protected by one onboard oxygen mask. Oxygen comes from a bottle and is available for the rest of the flight. Cabin crew have (at best) a smoke hood for their protection. The chemical oxygen supply in the smoke hood is intended only for short duration. A private breathing mask can protect people in the cabin in the very rare event of air contamination. A breathing mask filters the air and will do so for the rest of the flight. Inexpensive are the army standard breathing masks. Buy only new masks. Germany: "Bundeswehr Schutzmaske M65" (by Dräger). Better suited is a civil mask like the "Dräger X-plore 6300 Full Mask". It has a standardized 40 mm threaded filter connection. A suitable filter would be the "Dräger X-plore A2B2E2K2HGP3". This is a "combined filter" for "organic gases and vapours" (A), "inorganic gases and vapours" (B), and other substances.

Also this information is provided here; because I have been ask for it. Cabin crew members are increasingly concerned. Some already have a personal breathing mask in their carry-on baggage or intend to do so. By asking cabin crew members to consider to carry a breathing mask (in order to be prepared for a very unlikely event), I do NOT state that cabin air can be compared to the air after an attack with chemical weapons. What I argue is only this: A breathing mask (with a suitable filter) will protect people in "harsh environments". I do NOT consider the aircraft cabin such a "harsh environment". Therefore, a breathing mask will give sufficient protection in such cases where people have (claimed to) become ill in the aircraft cabin due to (potentially) contaminated cabin air. Employers have a legal duty to protect their employees. If employers do not act accordingly, cabin crew have the right to take measures themselves as deemed necessary.


4 Student Contributions

Author University Title Type of Work Delivered No of Pages Full Text Size
Marcel Lakies HAW Hamburg englisch Dynamic Cabin Air Contamination Calculation Theory Project 01.03.19 84 *.pdf  3.2M
Viola Voth TU Braunschweig deutsch Analyse der Entstehungsmechanismen von Ölnebel in Flugzeugkabinen Bachelorarbeit 17.07.18 116 *.pdf   11M
Copyright of student contributions is with the respective author. Thanks to the students for their enthusiasm to advance the topic!


5 Proceedings of the Int. Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017

Conference Proceedings 2017

*.pdf 2017 Conference Proceedings     Size:  9.1M

Find individual papers via the Index on page 2 and 3 (click on name or title).
The PDF Table of Contents shows author's names (alphabetically by last name) and also links to the paper.

Short link to publisher's version:

Article Citation (ISO 690):
LastName, FirstName, 2019. ArticleTitle. In: Proceedings of the International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017. Journal of Health and Pollution, Vol. 9, No. 24 (Dec. 2019), pp. StartPage - EndPage. - URL:


6 Links

link International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019
link The Global Cabin Air Quality Executive (GCAQE) with further links
link Vereinigung Cockpit --- Flight Health & Environment German Pilots Union
     link Artikel und Recherchen deutsch Publications and Links
link Aerotoxic Logbook (ATLB) by Prof. Dr. Johannes Ludwig
link Aerotoxic Association (AeA) by Captain John Hoyte
link Patienteninitiative – Contaminated Cabin Air deutsch a German initiative by Michael Kramer and Kerstin Konrad
link FlyAware a Dutch initiative
link Association des Victimes du Syndrome Aérotoxique französich a French initiative
link Everybody Flies - Trailer

STAND:  20 October 2019
AUTHOR:  Prof. Dr. Scholz

home  Prof. Dr. Scholz
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home  Hamburg University of Applied Sciences