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Aircraft Cabin Air

The air you breathe on an aircraft may not be as good as you had hoped for. Coming to this page, you probably know already. However, if it is all new to you, read my German Memo or watch this Video in English.

Hawaiian Airlines, smoke in cabin



A detailed look at the design of jet engines with their bearings, lubrication and sealing reveals that jet engines leak small amounts of oil by design. This oil gets into the engine compressor and the bleed air. Almost all passenger jet aircraft today use this potentially contaminated bleed air for cabin ventilation.


Table of Contents

all related to Aircraft Cabin Air Quality / Contamination.

On another page:

  • Proceedings of the Aircraft Cabin Air Conferences
  • Reach this page with:
    See also:


    Own Contributions

    Papers, Presentations, Memos

    Author Title Type of Work Delivered No of Pages Occasion / Purpose Abstract PURL/DOI Full Text Size
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Neue Forschung zur Kontamination von Kabinenluft Magazin-Artikel 23.09.23 4 Gastbeitrag VC-Info (online)
    Gastbeitrag VC-Info 3/2023, S. 18)
    *.pdf  1.1M
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Flughafen Hamburg, Airbus A321, Abbruch eines Fluges kurz nach dem Start, Kabinenluftkontamination Press Release 06.07.23 7 News, Hintergrund und Kommentar *.html
    *.pdf  568K
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Forschung soll Hinweise geben zur Kontamination der Kabinenluft von Flugzeugen – Agentur der Europäischen Union für Flugsicherheit (EASA) Press Release 30.01.23 8 State of the art after the EASA Workshop in Cologne, 17.-18.01.2023 *.html
    *.pdf  409K
    Dieter Scholz New
    englisch Routes of Aircraft Cabin Air Contamination from Engine Oil, Hydraulic and Deicing Fluid
    Journal Paper 01.03.22 18 INCAS BULLETIN
    Volume 14, Issue 1 / 2022, pp. 153 – 170
    --- *.pdf  3.3M
    Judith Anderson, Dieter Scholz englisch Oil Fumes, Flight Safety, and the NTSB Journal Paper 10.12.21 20 Aerospace 2021, vol. 8, no. 12, art. 389, Special Issue "Aircraft Design" (SI-3/2021) --- *.pdf  [an error occurred while processing this directive]
    Dieter Scholz englisch Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire (ANSES) – Hearing on the Operation of Air Conditioning in Aircraft Cabins and the Associated Air Quality Presentation 08.07.21 75 ANSES Investigation on "Air Quality in Aircraft and Health Effects on Aircrew"
    Hearing Prof. Scholz, Online, 2021-07-08
    *.pdf  4.5M
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Größte Konferenz über kontaminierte Luft in Flugzeugen: Zapfluftfilter und -sensoren müssen dringend in Passagierflugzeugen installiert werden Press Release 25.03.21 6 Report about the International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2021 *.html --- *.pdf  1.0M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil – Routes of Contamination Conference Paper 15.03.21 22 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2021
    Online, 15 - 18 March 2021
    *.pdf  4.3M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil – An Engineering Update Presentation 15.03.21 42 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2021
    Online, 15 - 18 March 2021
    *.pdf  2.4M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Contaminated Aircraft Cabin Air - An Aeronautical Engineering Perspective Presentation 18.12.20 22 Press Meeting 10 Years German Wings "Cabin Air Contamination Event" (CACE): 2010-12-19 Online, HAW Hamburg, 2020-12-18 --- *.pdf  1.4M
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Lufthansa-Rettung: Es geht nicht nur um CO2 --- Spezifische Anforderungen and die Lufthansa auch zum Thema "Kontaminierte Kabinenluft"! Offene E-Mail 13.05.20 2 Unterstützung aus dem Bereich der Technik für Sven-Christian Kindler (MdB) and Katharina Dröge (MdB) --- *.pdf  176K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Lufthansa rescue: It's not just about CO2 --- Specific demands on Lufthansa also on the subject of "contaminated cabin air"! Open E-Mail 13.05.20 2 Technical support for Sven-Christian Kindler (MdB) and Katharina Dröge (MdB) --- --- *.pdf  171K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Congress on Poisoned Aircraft Cabin Air - First Solutions to the Problem Become Visible Press Release 24.09.19 6 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019
    Summary of Technical Key Findings
    --- --- *.pdf  577K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Cabin Air Contamination – A Summary of Engineering Arguments Presentation 18.09.19 35 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019
    Imperial College London, 17 - 18 September 2019
    *.pdf  2.2M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Contaminated Aircraft Cabin Air - An Aeronautical Engineering Perspective Presentation 27.05.19 60 Meeting 2019, Association des Victimes du Syndrome Aérotoxique (AVSA), Paris CDG Airport, France, 27.05.2019 --- *.pdf  3.2M
    Dieter Scholz englisch A Quick Introduction to the Problem of Cabin Air Contamination Presentation 12.03.19 4 Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin, 12.03.2019 --- *.pdf  373K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Technical Solutions to the Problem of Contaminated Cabin Air Presentation 05.09.18 76 Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2018, Friedrichshafen (Germany), 04.-06.09.2018 *.html
    *.pdf  4.0M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Jet Engines – Bearings, Seals and Oil Consumption Memo 02.04.18 22 Review to substantiate the calculation of the oil concentration in aircraft cabins *.html *.pdf  2.2M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Cabin Air Contamination - An Aeronautical Perspective Presentation 16.03.18 73 59. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e.V., Dresden (Germany), 16. März 2018 *.html --- *.pdf  5.0M
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Belastete Kabinenluft in Flugzeugen - Flugzeugbau-Experte Dieter Scholz sieht Handlungsbedarf Interview 06.12.17 4 Hinweis: Dies ist eine etwas
    vollständigere Version des Interviews
    als im Themendienst der HAW Hamburg vom 03.04.2018
    Streichungen der Pressestelle sind hervorgehoben.
    --- *.pdf  501K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air - Quality or Contamination? Presentation 20.11.17 48 Personalversammlung "Kabine"
    Deutsche Lufthansa AG
    Frankfurt, 20 November 2017
    --- --- *.pdf  4.1M
    Dieter Scholz deutsch Die Luft in der Kabine von Passagierflugzeugen ist nicht so gut wie oft angenommen - Hintergründe, Lösungsmöglichkeiten und deren Umsetzung Memo 01.10.17 4 Populärwissenschaftliche Darstellung und Einführung --- englisch
    *.pdf  224K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View Journal Paper 17.09.19 6 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017
    Imperial College London, 19 - 20 September 2017
    *.html 10.5281/zenodo.3565834 *.pdf  765K
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - An Engineering View Presentation 19.09.17 72 International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017
    Imperial College London, 19 - 20 September 2017
    *.pdf  5.2M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air and Engine Oil - A Systems Engineering View Presentation 27.04.17 75 Hamburg Aerospace Lecture Series (HALS)
    DGLR, RAeS, VDI, ZAL, HAW Hamburg
    together with VC and UFO
    HAW Hamburg, 27 April 2017
    *.html 10.5281/zenodo.1237858 *.pdf  6.9M
    Dieter Scholz englisch Aircraft Cabin Air & Water Contamination/Quality – An Aircraft Systems Engineering Perspective Presentation 01.04.14 46 QCAQE – Global Cabin Air Quality Executive
    London, 31 March – 2 April 2014

    Video Showing Contaminated Water on Aircraft (2020)

    Background to: Contaminated Water on Aircraft (2020)




    YouTube Video


    Presentations are based on one another - extended through the years; shortened for the audience and allocated time.



    YouTube Playlist: Cabin Air (Uploads to YouTube by Prof. Scholz) Pin
    YouTube Playlist: Cabin Air (Video LINKS)
    Vimeo Playlist: Aircraft Cabin Air (Video LINKS)

    englisch Presentation at the International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2019

    englisch Presentation at the International Aircraft Cabin Air Conference 2017

    deutsch Dieter Scholz im Interview bei:
    ZDFzoom - Dicke Luft im Flieger (2017)

    deutsch Dieter Scholz im Interview bei:
    Deutschlandfunk Nova - Kabinenluft (2017)



    Student Contributions

    Author University Title Type of Work Delivered No of Pages Full Text Size  Persistent Identifier
    Carlos L. S. Raposo Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Técnico englisch Bioaerosol Transport and Sensor in Passenger Aircraft Master Thesis October 2022 123
    Lukas Stichternath HAW Hamburg englisch Pilot Measures against Cabin Air Contamination Bachelor Thesis 03.02.2021 115 *.pdf  8.4M
    Dennis Tietke HAW Hamburg englisch Oil Leakage Paths within Compressors of Jet Engines and Oil Concentration in Aircraft Cabin Air Project 25.03.2020 36 *.pdf  7.8M
    Taner Ayan HAW Hamburg deutsch Analyse der Liegezeiten von Passagierflugzeugen nach Fume Events mittels Flugverfolgung Projekt 15.01.2020 68 *.pdf  4.9M
    Sascha Max Hochschule RheinMain (Lufthansa Technik) deutsch Entwicklung eines Versuchsaufbaus zur Detektierung von Triebwerksöl und Enteisungsflüssigkeit im Bleedsystem Vortrag zur Bachelorarbeit 14.11.2019 8 *.pdf 693K
    Marcel Lakies HAW Hamburg englisch Dynamic Cabin Air Contamination Calculation Theory Project 01.03.2019 84 *.pdf 3.2M
    Viola Voth TU Braunschweig deutsch Analyse der Entstehungsmechanismen von Ölnebel in Flugzeugkabinen Bachelorarbeit 17.07.2018 116 *.pdf 11M
    Susan Michaelis Cranfield University englisch Implementation of the Requirements for the Provision of Clean Air in Crew and Passenger Compartments Using the Aircraft Bleed Air System Master Thesis June 2016 131 *.pdf 4.1M
    Tonje Trulssen Hildre, June Krutå Jensen Norwegian University of Science and Technology englisch Fume Events in Aircraft Cabins Master Thesis June 2015 168 *.pdf 2.1M
    Paul W. Magoha Kansas State University englisch Incident-Response Monitoring Technologies for Aircraft-Cabin Air Quality PhD Thesis 13.08.2012 398 *.pdf 38.5M
    Susan Michaelis University of New South Wales englisch Health and Flight Safety Implications from Exposure to Contaminated Air in Aircraft PhD Thesis September 2010 932 *.pdf 6.1M
    Thanks to the students for their enthusiasm to advance the topic! Copyright of student contributions is with the respective author. Most of the above theses are stored on the server of Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. Thanks for giving me permission to upload the documents. The documents of Hildre & Jensen and Magoha link to their respective university repository.


    Media Coverage (selected)

    Sick Pilots: Justice Recognizes the Reality

    2023-10-31: Fumes often contaminate the air in airplane cabins. A known phenomenon, but whose health impact is contested by airlines. Pilots dismissed for unfitness have managed to have the causal link between their illness and polluted air recognized. On 20 October 2023, the Bordeaux judicial court recognized the causal link between a pilot's illness and his professional exposure.

    Full story in English (archived), Original article in French (archived), Original article in French behind paywall (archived),


    ARD/SWR: Schadstoffe in der Kabinenluft deutsch

    ARD/SWR, 2020-01-28: Schadstoffe in der Kabinenluft (Teil 1: SWR-Bericht mit Video - mit Scholz)
    Meine technischen Ergänzungen zum Report als Kommentar deutsch
    My technical additions to the documentary as a comment englisch
    ARD/SWR, 2020-01-28: Schadstoffe in der Kabinenluft (Teil 2: Text des Beitrags)
    ARD/SWR (German Television), 2020-01-28: Polluted Cabin Air (YouTube-Video with English Subtitles) englisch
    ARD/SWR, 2020-01-28: Schadstoffe in der Kabinenluft (Teil 3: Atemschutzmaske für die Kabinenbesatzung)
    ARD/SWR, 2020-01-28: Schadstoffe in der Kabinenluft (Presseinformation, PDF)
    ARD/SWR, Report aus Mainz, 2020-01-28: Giftige Kabinenluft im Flugzeug? (Video, Vorschau)
    Lufthansa, PV Kabine, 2020-01-07: Smoke, Smell, Fume Events (Forderung: Atemschutzmasken für Kabinenpersonal - Hintergrüde, PDF)
    Dräger-X-plore-3300 (Die von der PV Kabine vorgeschlagene Atemschutzmaske)
    The Aviation Herald: Latest research: Bleed Air Ducts can not be cleaned, pollutants deeply penetrate human bodies (News about the ARD/SWR Docu)
    Markus Steinhausen, 2020-01-28: Kontaminierte Kabinenluft durch Fehlkonstruktion der Flugzeugventilation. LinkedIn


    Schwäbische: Piloten klagen über Gesundheitsprobleme deutsch

    Schwäbische, 2018-10-22: Piloten klagen über Gesundheitsprobleme (PDF), (Interview u.a. mit Prof. Scholz) (User=cabinair=PW)
    In Web.Archive.


    Die ZEIT: Gift in der Kabine? deutsch

    Die ZEIT, 2017-10-19: Gift in der Kabine? (PDF), (Interview u.a. mit Prof. Scholz) (User=cabinair=PW)
    Siehe auch: ZEIT ONLINE, in Web.Archive.


    Sunday Times: EasyJet is First Airline to Go for Total Cabin Air Filtration

    Sunday Times, 2017-09-17: Article (PDF) (User=cabinair=PW), Video.

    ORF2, KONKRET, 2017-09-22, 18:30: Video (Interview e.g. with Prof. Scholz).
    ORF2, ZIB2, 2017-09-22, 22:00: Video (Interview e.g. with Prof. Scholz), Transcript, in Web.Archive.


    EasyJet to go for Cabin Air Filtration in the Recirculation Path

    Pall had announced already on 2016-12-05 (Web.Archive) that EasyJet would retrofit their fleet of A320 family aircraft with the latest Pall Aerospace PUREair Advanced Cabin Air Filters [in the recirculation].


    More News

    2020-12-18: Pressegespräch: 10 Jahre German Wings "Cabin Air Contamination Event" am 2010-12-19 mit "Fast-Katastrophe"

    Einladung: Whistleblower-Netzwerk: Online-Pressegespräch zum "Underreporting" von Fume Events, Text archiviert
    Bericht: Online-Pressegespräch "Fume Event"
    Vortrag: Contaminated Aircraft Cabin Air – An Aeronautical Engineering Perspective
    Pressespiegel: General-Anzeiger, Bonn, Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger

    2020-08-10: HANDELSBLATT: Gefährliche Kabinenluft: Nervengifte in 10.000 Metern Höhe

    Die Luft in Zivilflugzeugen ist potenziell gesundheitsschädlich. Endlich soll eine EU-Norm kommen – es zeichnet sich ein schwacher Kompromiss ab.

    deutsch Text im HANDELSBLATT, deutsch Text archiviert.

    englisch Dangerous cabin air: Nerve poisons at 10,000 metres altitude (PDF)

    2020-07-31: JetBlue Pilot Wins Major Worker Compensation for Toxic Fume Exposure

    The airline got accused of being "more concerned about keeping planes in the air than worker safety." The toxic fumes incident, or more specifically, "acute chemical inhalation" and "acute toxic inhalation," took place aboard an Airbus A320 and led to Captain Myers'devastating health problems.

    englisch Text at Transport Workers Union of America (TWU), englisch text archived.

    2020-05-27: Open Letter - German Government Financial Aid for Lufthansa Must Included Money for Better Cabin Air

    Read: P-COC: Open Letter - Lufthansa Financial Aids and Fume Events (PDF).

    2020-05-21: € 9 Billion Lufthansa Bailout by German Government - Contaminated Cabin Air Likely to Remain Unnoticed!

    "The two seats on the Supervisory Board should now be filled with experts who are aiming for Lufthansa's economic recovery and not pursuing a political agenda." (Handelsblatt quoting a politician.)
    If this is the deal - even with that much of government money - Lufthansa (and the rest of the aviation industry) will again not be forced to adhere to the law when it comes to aircraft cabin air.
    Read: D. Scholz: Demands to be Placed on Lufthansa Related to Cabin Air as One of the Prerequisites for Bailout (PDF).

    2020-01-28: ARD/SWR (German Television): Polluted Cabin Air

    YouTube-Video with English Subtitles (inspired by Prof. Scholz, realized by Markus Steinhausen after month of dedicated hard work)

    See more information related to this documentary below!

    Reporting by Aviation Herald

    Far too often there is a CACE (Cabin Air Contamination Event) somewhere in the world to allow me to offer here an exhaustive list of such events. I have added here just a few quite extreme events once I came accross them and found time to look into them a little. In most cases, I just refer to Aviation Herald. Only occasionally, I have added something on my own. Aviation Herald is a good source, but also at times struggles to report about all CACEs. As I said, CACEs are just far too often. We need to change that!

    2019-10-19: Aviation Herald: Accident: British Airways A320 at Paphos on Oct 19th 2019, fumes in cockpit, both pilots partially incapacitated

    2019-08-22: Aviation Herald: Accident: Hawaiian A21N near Honolulu on Aug 22nd 2019, fumes and smoke on board prompt evacuation
    Prof. Scholz: An analysis of the sequence of events!

    2019-08-05: Aviation Herald: Accident: British Airways A321 at Valencia on Aug 5th 2019, smoke on board

    2019-03-29: Five UK Airlines Sued Over Toxic Cabin Air Including British Airways and EasyJet

    EasyJet, British Airways, Thomas Cook Airlines, Jet2 and Virgin Atlantic have all been served lawsuits by the union Unite, with a total of 51 cases to be heard. Four of the lawsuits involve pilots while the rest are being brought by members of cabin crew. Court actions involve crews who claim to have suffered chronic illness as a result of being exposed to toxic fumes. It could take up to a year before they're heard in court.

    englisch Text at The Independent, englisch text archived.

    More Reporting by Aviation Herald - Selection of Incidences Before 2019

    2018-12-10: Aviation Herald: Incident: Indigo A320neo at Kolkata on Dec 10th 2018, smoke on board
    Impressive Video. My Comment on Twitter and and My Contribution on Twitter to the Discussion. "The occurrence was rated a serious incident and is being investigated by the AIB". Telegraph 2018-12-13: Bearing-oil leak blamed for IndiGo cabin smoke.

    2015-07-17: Aviation Herald: Accident: Spirit A319 at Boston on Jul 17th 2015, fumes on board, captain died 50 days later



    CO Detectors

    Sensors have been demanded by pilots and cabin crew for years, but they are still not introduced on board. There may be good reasons for NOT introducing air quality sensors on passenger aircraft. However, every individual on an aircraft may decide to get informed and this can not be denied. Therefore, immediate action could be taken without waiting for the ultimate industry solution of the problem - which may never come. This is especially important in failure cases like fume events. Failures compromising cabin air quality may alert people on board, but it may need some kind of objective confirmation before action can be taken. Situations with cabin air quality problems could also pass unnoticed without sensing. If cabin air is contaminated, it will show a mixture of many substances. Carbon monoxide (CO) will most probably be one of these substances. Simple logic tells us that it is sufficient to trace one bad gas in an abnormal quantity to conclude that the cabin air is not ok. CO is taken from the cocktail to be measured, because inexpensive and small CO detectors are available on the market. Pilots (cabin crew, passengers) should read the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration from a personal CO detector as an objective indicator in addition to the observations from their senses (nose and eyes). It is known from CO measurements on the BAe 146 that the CO concentration will be low even in a fume event [1]. For this reason, the CO concentration should not be compared against the limit value of 50 ppm (CS 25.831), but rather against values obtained under normal conditions (e.g. 2 ppm; as a frequent flyer you will find out for yourself soon).

    [1] Global Cabin Air Quality Executive: Carbon Monoxide Database Collated on 345 BAe 146 Flights in UK, 2003-2004, 2006 (access difficult, but contact GCAQE for more information if you are desperate)

    Feel free to report/share your findings. E.g. take a picture of your CO detector with its reading (maybe with a fume filled cabin in the background) and report about what happened to people during that flight. We may all learn from this collected information.

    I have expressed the above view in my presentations and have been asked where inexpensive(!) CO detectors can be bought. Looking on the Internet myself, I discovered these links:

    Inexpensive Instant CO Sensors:
    UYIGAO UA6070 CO Detector (identical to KXL-801) --- Features: loud alarm
    KXL-801 CO Detector (identical to UYIGAO UA6070) --- Video Test
    KKmoon GM8805 CO Detector --- Features: data hold, alarm threshold can be set. Video Test. Manual (PDF)
    AS8700A CO Detector --- Features: data hold
    HT-530 CO Detector --- Features: clip to attach to clothes
    KXL-601 Mini CO Detector (low budget device) --- User report: "very inaccurate", "not recommended"


    Affordable CO Datalogger:
    Lascar Electronics EL-USB-CO300 Carbon Monoxide Datalogger



    Breathing Masks

    Each member of the cockpit crew is protected by one onboard oxygen mask. Oxygen comes from a bottle and is available for the rest of the flight. Cabin crew have (at best) a smoke hood for their protection. The chemical oxygen supply in the smoke hood is intended only for short duration. A private breathing mask can protect people in the cabin in the very rare event of air contamination. A breathing mask filters the air and will do so for the rest of the flight. Inexpensive are the army standard breathing masks. Buy only new masks. Germany: "Bundeswehr Schutzmaske M65" (by Dräger). Better suited is a civil mask like the "Dräger X-plore 6300 Full Mask". It has a standardized 40 mm threaded filter connection. A suitable filter would be the "Dräger X-plore A2B2E2K2HGP3". This is a "combined filter" for "organic gases and vapours" (A), "inorganic gases and vapours" (B), and other substances.

    Also this information is provided here; because I have been ask for it. Cabin crew members are increasingly concerned. Some already have a personal breathing mask in their carry-on baggage or intend to do so. By asking cabin crew members to consider to carry a breathing mask (in order to be prepared for a very unlikely event), I do NOT state that cabin air can be compared to the air after an attack with chemical weapons. What I argue is only this: A breathing mask (with a suitable filter) will protect people in "harsh environments". I do NOT consider the aircraft cabin such a "harsh environment". Therefore, a breathing mask will give sufficient protection in such cases where people have (claimed to) become ill in the aircraft cabin due to (potentially) contaminated cabin air. Employers have a legal duty to protect their employees. If employers do not act accordingly, cabin crew have the right to take measures themselves as deemed necessary.



    link International Aircraft Cabin Air Conferences (2017, 2019, 2021, 2022, ...)
        International Aircraft Cabin Air Conferences - Proceedings
    link The Global Cabin Air Quality Executive (GCAQE)
    link The Airline Pilots Forum: Flight Safety and Contaminated Air
    link Vereinigung Cockpit --- Flight Health & Environment (German Pilots Union)
        Andere Veröffentlichungen deutsch (External Publications)
    link Aerotoxic Logbook (ATLB) by Prof. Dr. Johannes Ludwig
    link Aerotoxic Association by Captain John Hoyte
    link by Bearnairdine Beaumont
    link Patienteninitiative – Contaminated Cabin Air deutsch a German initiative by Michael Kramer, Kerstin Konrad, and Ekaterini Bary-Schüller
    link FlyAware a Dutch initiative
    link Association des Victimes du Syndrome Aérotoxique französich a French initiative



    Welcome Aboard Toxic Airlines
    Angel Without Wings
    A Dark Reflection VoD
    Everybody Flies Trailer
    AMERICAN 965

    STAND:  18 June 2024
    AUTHOR:  Prof. Dr. Scholz

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