Logo SCIRP Open Access Logo
Home: AAST Editor's Page SCIRP: More About
SCIRP: Why China?
SCIRP: Advisory Board
SCIRP: OpenAccess
AAST: The Review Process
... in Flow Charts
... in Textual Form
AAST: Review Style
AAST: Ethical Declaration
AAST: Copyright Form
AAST: Archiving
AAST: Referencing with ISO 690
AAST: Using the Template
AAST: Checklist


Advances in Aerospace Science and Technology (AAST)

AAST: Referencing with ISO 690

ISO 690

References in papers for publication in the journal AAST are made based on:


Third edition, 2010-06-15

Information and documentation - Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources

ISO Reference number: ISO 690:2010(E)

item ISO 690, 2010. Information and documentation - Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations
*.pdf ISO690.pdf     Upload:  2013-10-12     Size:  2.2M
What to type into each field for User and PW: The abbreviation of the journal in upper case letters

The standard is quite general. This page provides further guidance on what rules to select from ISO 690. It has been selected for use with AAST:


Citation in Text

"The creator's name and the year of publication of the resource cited are given in the text in a name and date system. If the creator's name occurs naturally in the text, the year follows in parentheses, but if not, both name and year are in parentheses. In citations to particular parts of an information resource, the location of that part (e.g. page number) may be given after the year within the parentheses. If two or more information resources have the same creator and year, they are distinguished by lower-case letters (a, b, c, etc.), following the year within the parentheses." (ISO690, A2.1)

EXAMPLE (ISO690, A2.1):
The notion of an invisible college has been explored in the sciences (Crane 1972). Its absence among historians is noted by Stieg (1981b, p. 556). It may be, as Burchard (1965) points out, that they have no assistants, or are reluctant to delegate (Smith 1980; Chapman 1981).



"The references to the information resources cited in the text are arranged in a list in the alphabetical order of the creators' surnames, with the year of publication and lower-case letter, if any, immediately following the creator's name." (ISO690, A2.2)

EXAMPLES (ISO690, A2.2) (slightly adapted):
BURCHARD, James E., 1965. How humanists use a library. In: OVERHAGE, Clement F.J. and HARMAN, Jonathan R., eds. Intrex: Report on a planning conference and information transfer experiments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1965-09-03, pp. 41-87.

CHAPMAN, Josua, 1981. Report to the British Library Research and Development Department [microfiche]. Birmingham: University School of History. S1/9/281.

CRANE, David, 1972. Invisible Colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

SMITH, Chris, 1980. Problems of information studies in history. In: STONE, S., ed. Humanities information research, Sheffield: CRUS, pp. 27-30.

STIEG, Mike F., 1981b. The information needs of historians. College and Research Libraries, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 549-560.

Journal issues and pages of publications are listed as given in the last example above:
vol. for volume
no. for number of the journal
pp. for a page range
p. for a single page


Presentation of References

Information on how to present references is given in ISO 690 (Appendix B). When using the author-date system we have to observe that the sequence of elements in Appendix B has to be adapted. Referencing has to be done (according to ISO 690) in this way:
  1. Name of creator(s) (of the cited item): Required
  2. Year: Required
  3. Title of the item: Required
  4. ...
  5. ...
  6. ...
  7. Date of publication: In the name and date system, the year should not normally be repeated (in the date of publication element), unless a fuller date [consiting of year, month, and day] is necessary. [If a fuller date is given it should be presented according to ISO 8601 as year-month-day e.g. 2013-03-31.]
Further examples of bibliographic references are given in ISO 690 (Appendix C). Adapt these examples to the author-date system as explained above.

Please look at the journal's template file to find out how to set up a complete list of references in a paper.


Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing

Anglia Ruskin University, 2013. Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing pin

item ANGLIA RUSKIN UNIVERSITY, 2013. Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing
*.pdf Harvard_referencing_2013.pdf     Size:  0.8M

How to cite multiple authors?

CITING IN-TEXT (usage at AAST, not apparent from ISO 690, different from Anglia Ruskin University):
Only the first author is citated in the text. Use "Lastname Year" (without comma) as the standard format.

If the source has multiple authors, all the names should be included in the order they appear in the document. (Anglia Ruskin University 2013)
Use the sequence "LASTNAME, Firstname". (Anglia Ruskin University 2013)
Use the abbreviated first mane only if nothing else is given: "LASTNAME, Initial." or "LASTNAME, Initial.Initial."
Use "and" to link the last two multiple authors. (ISO 690)
Write the Lastname in capital letters in the reference list. (ISO 690, Appendix C)

If there is no human author, the name of the organization is given instead.

Citing in-text: Adams (2010) or (Adams 2010)
Citing in the reference list: ADAMS, Ron J., WEISS, Tod D. and COATIE, Jefferson J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.


Background: Forms of Citations

An overview of the different forms of citation is given in Wikipedia. A summary is provided here.

There are two fundamentally different families of styles:

Leading US American organizations in engineering recommend the Vancouver referencing style: AAST recomments Harvard referencing style because it is more efficient:
LAST UPDATE:  2019-03-05
home  Prof. Dr. Scholz