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Aircraft Design



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Get started with Aircraft Design by learning about the main parts of an aircraft. Click on (+) to get a Definition of the related aircraft component and follow the links to Wikipedia and NASA to learn more. Click on the Hotspot (+) which is up in the air for an Introduction. Look at NASA's Overview of Aircraft Parts. The picture shows an Emirates Airbus A340-300 (source).


Table of Content


1 Introduction

1.1 Requirements, Parameters, Constraints and Objec tives
1.2 Aircraft Design: Part of Aircraft Development
1.3 General Approach to Aircraft Design

2 Aircraft Design Sequence

2.1 Preliminary Sizing
2.2 Conceptual Design

3 Requirements and Certification 

3.1 Origin of Requirements for Aircrafts
  3.1.1 Analysis of the Seat-Range Diagram
  3.1.2 Analysis of the Route Network of an Airline
  3.1.3 Analysis of a Full Market Survey
3.2 Calculation of Required Payload
3.3 Payload-Range Diagram
3.4 Certification

4 Aircraft Configurations Dieter Scholz

4.1 Three-View Drawings of Conventional Aircraft Co nfigurations
4.2 Three-View Drawings of Unconventional Configurations

5 Preliminary Sizing

5.1 Landing Distance
5.2 Take-off Distance
5.3 Climb Rate during 2nd Segment
5.4 Lift-to-Drag Ratio with Extended Landing Gear and Extended Flaps
5.5 Climb Rate during Missed Approach
5.6 Cruise
  5.6.1 Thrust-to-Weight Ratio
  5.6.2 Wing Loading
5.7 Lift-to-Drag Ratio during Cruise
5.8 Matching Chart
5.9 Maximum Take-Off Mass
  5.9.1 Operating Empty Mass and Useful Load
  5.9.2 Fuel Fractions
5.10 Take-off Thrust and Wing Area

6 Fuselage and Cabin Conceptual Design

6.1 Fuselage Cross-Section and Cargo Compartment
6.2 Cockpit, Cabin and Fuselage Tail Section

7 Wing Design

7.1 Wing Parameters
7.2 Basic Principle and Design Equations
7.3 Flight and Operational Characteristics
7.4 Ailerons and Spoilers
7.5 Example: The Wing of the Airbus A310

8 High Lift Systems and Maximum Lift Coefficients

8.1 High Lift Systems
       Trailing edge high lift systems
       Leading edge high lift systems
       Generation of high lift
8.2 Calculation of Maximum Lift Coefficients
       The maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil
       The maximum lift coefficient of a wing
       Increase in maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil through high lift devices
       Increase in the maximum lift coefficient of a wing through high lift devices
8.3 Design of High Lift Systems

9 Empennage General Design

9.1 Functions of Empennages TrimStabilityControl
9.2 Shapes of the Empennage
9.3 Design Rules
9.4 Design According to Tail Volume
9.5 Elevator and Rudder

10 Prediction of Mass and CG-Location

10.1 Mass Forecasts
10.2 Centre of Gravity Calculations

11 Empennage Sizing

11.1 Horizontal Tailplane Sizing
       Horizontal tailplane sizing according to control requirement
       Horizontal tailplane sizing according to stability requirement
       Horizontal tailplane sizing – overall picture
11.2 Parameters for Horizontal Tailplane Sizing
       Aerodynamic center
       Lift coefficient
       Zero lift angle of attack for a wing
       Downwash angle
       Pitching moment of the airfoil at the aerodynamic center
       Pitching moment of the wing at the aerodynamic center Downwash gradient
11.3 Vertical Tailplane Sizing
       Vertical tailplane sizing according to control requirement
       Vertical tailplane sizing according to stability requirement
       General assessment of vertical tailplane sizing
11.4 Parameters for Vertical Tailplane Sizing The rudder - a plain flap
       Stability coefficient
       Stability coefficient

12 Landing Gear Conceptual Design and Integration

       Stable stand on the ground
       Tail and bank angle clearance
       Nose landing gear load
       Integrate wing landing gear into wing plan form
       Prevent airport surface damage (ACN)
       Wheel load carrying capability
       Compact integration
       Free fall capability
       Absorb touch down energy
       Braking at take off and landing
       General layout of the landing gear
       Iterative process

13 Drag Prediction

13.1 Drag Polar
13.2 Drag
13.3 Zero-Lift Drag
13.4 Wave Drag
13.5 Induced Drag and Oswald Factor

14 Design Evaluation / DOC

14.1 Costing as an Assessment Method in Aircraft Design
  14.1.1 Cost Analysis from the Perspective of the Aircraft Manufacturer
  14.1.2 Cost Analysis from the Perspective of the Operator
14.2 Overview of Assessment Methods
14.3 Direct Operating Costs (DOC)
  14.3.1 Calculation of DOC
  14.3.2 Representation of DOC
  14.3.3 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Depreciation
  14.3.4 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Interest
  14.3.5 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Insurance
  14.3.6 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Fuel Costs
  14.3.7 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Maintenance Costs
  14.3.8 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Staff Costs
  14.3.9 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Fees and Charges
  14.3.10 Calculation of Aircraft Utilization
  14.3.11 DOC Model Data
14.4 Final Comments

15 References 

Licence Agreement: CC-BY-NC-SA | Content: Prof. Dr-Ing. Dieter Scholz | Layout: Jakob Kopczynski | Design: templatemo