Get started with Aircraft Design by learning about the main parts of an aircraft. Click on (+) to get a *Definition* of the related aircraft component and follow the links to *Wikipedia* and *NASA* to learn more. Click on the **Hotspot (+) which is up in the air for an ***Introduction*. Look at NASA's Overview of Aircraft Parts. The picture shows an Emirates Airbus A340-300 (source).

1.1 Requirements, Parameters, Constraints and Objec tives

1.2 Aircraft Design: Part of Aircraft Development

1.3 General Approach to Aircraft Design

2.1 Preliminary Sizing

2.2 Conceptual Design

**3 Requirements and Certification**

3.1 Origin of Requirements for Aircrafts

3.1.1 Analysis of the Seat-Range Diagram

3.1.2 Analysis of the Route Network of an Airline

3.1.3 Analysis of a Full Market Survey

3.2 Calculation of Required Payload

3.3 Payload-Range Diagram

3.4 Certification

**4 Aircraft Configurations Dieter Scholz**

4.1 Three-View Drawings of Conventional Aircraft Co nfigurations

4.2 Three-View Drawings of Unconventional Configurations

5.1 Landing Distance

5.2 Take-off Distance

5.3 Climb Rate during 2nd Segment

5.4 Lift-to-Drag Ratio with Extended Landing Gear and Extended Flaps

5.5 Climb Rate during Missed Approach

5.6 Cruise

5.6.1 Thrust-to-Weight Ratio

5.6.2 Wing Loading

5.7 Lift-to-Drag Ratio during Cruise

5.8 Matching Chart

5.9 Maximum Take-Off Mass

5.9.1 Operating Empty Mass and Useful Load

5.9.2 Fuel Fractions

5.10 Take-off Thrust and Wing Area

**6 Fuselage and Cabin Conceptual Design**

6.1 Fuselage Cross-Section and Cargo Compartment

6.2 Cockpit, Cabin and Fuselage Tail Section

7.1 Wing Parameters

7.2 Basic Principle and Design Equations

7.3 Flight and Operational Characteristics

7.4 Ailerons and Spoilers

7.5 Example: The Wing of the Airbus A310

**8 High Lift Systems and Maximum Lift Coefficients**

8.1 High Lift Systems

Trailing edge high lift systems

Leading edge high lift systems

Generation of high lift

8.2 Calculation of Maximum Lift Coefficients

The maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil

The maximum lift coefficient of a wing

Increase in maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil through high lift devices

Increase in the maximum lift coefficient of a wing through high lift devices

8.3 Design of High Lift Systems

9.1 Functions of Empennages TrimStabilityControl

9.2 Shapes of the Empennage

9.3 Design Rules

9.4 Design According to Tail Volume

9.5 Elevator and Rudder

**10 Prediction of Mass and CG-Location**

10.1 Mass Forecasts

10.2 Centre of Gravity Calculations

11.1 Horizontal Tailplane Sizing

Horizontal tailplane sizing according to control requirement

Horizontal tailplane sizing according to stability requirement

Horizontal tailplane sizing – overall picture

11.2 Parameters for Horizontal Tailplane Sizing

Aerodynamic center

Lift coefficient

Zero lift angle of attack for a wing

Downwash angle

Pitching moment of the airfoil at the aerodynamic center

Pitching moment of the wing at the aerodynamic center Downwash gradient

11.3 Vertical Tailplane Sizing

Vertical tailplane sizing according to control requirement

Vertical tailplane sizing according to stability requirement

General assessment of vertical tailplane sizing

11.4 Parameters for Vertical Tailplane Sizing The rudder - a plain flap

Stability coefficient

Stability coefficient

**12 Landing Gear Conceptual Design and Integration**

Stable stand on the ground

Tail and bank angle clearance

Nose landing gear load

Integrate wing landing gear into wing plan form

Prevent airport surface damage (ACN)

Wheel load carrying capability

Compact integration

Free fall capability

Absorb touch down energy

Braking at take off and landing

General layout of the landing gear

Iterative process

13.1 Drag Polar

13.2 Drag

13.3 Zero-Lift Drag

13.4 Wave Drag

13.5 Induced Drag and Oswald Factor

14.1 Costing as an Assessment Method in Aircraft Design

14.1.1 Cost Analysis from the Perspective of the Aircraft Manufacturer

14.1.2 Cost Analysis from the Perspective of the Operator

14.2 Overview of Assessment Methods

14.3 Direct Operating Costs (DOC)

14.3.1 Calculation of DOC

14.3.2 Representation of DOC

14.3.3 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Depreciation

14.3.4 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Interest

14.3.5 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Insurance

14.3.6 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Fuel Costs

14.3.7 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Maintenance Costs

14.3.8 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Staff Costs

14.3.9 Calculation of DOC Cost Elements - Fees and Charges

14.3.10 Calculation of Aircraft Utilization

14.3.11 DOC Model Data

14.4 Final Comments