JAA-Logo

JAR-1 Definitions and Abbreviations


Change 5, 15 July 1996

Table of Contents of JAR-1

On this page:
link Foreword
link JAR 1.1 General Definitions
link JAR 1.2 Abbreviations and Symbols
link Various Figures and Tables (Graphics not reproduced!)
link Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative/Explanatory Material (AMC & IEM)


Disclaimer: This copy from JAR-1 is provided for study purposes only. Do not rely on the information provided in any way. Note: Graphics are not reproduced!


This page is not from the Joint Aviation Authorities, JAA. The official source of this document is:
JAA Headquarters, PO Box 3000, 2130 KA HOOFDDORP, Netherlands

A printed version of this document can be obtained from:
Civil Aviation Authority, Printing & Publication Services, 37 Gratton Road, Cheltenham GL50 2BN, UK

The document can be obtained on CD-ROM from:
Westward Digital Limited, 37 Windsor Street, Cheltenham, Glos, GL52 2DG, UK



Foreword

1 The Civil Aviation Authorities of certain European countries have agreed common comprehensive and detailed aviation requirements (referred to as the Joint Aviation Requirements (JAR) with a view to minimising Type Certification problems on joint ventures, and also to facilitate the export and import of aviation products.
[ 2 The JAR are recognised by the Civil Aviation Authorities of participating countries as an acceptable basis for showing compliance with their national airworthiness codes. ]
[ 3 This JAR-1 contains definitions and abbreviations of terms used in other JAR Codes. JAR-1 is based partly on those definitions contained in ICAO Annexes, and partly on the Federal Aviation Administration's FAR Part 1. ]
[ 4 Definitions which are identical to those in the ICAO Annexes are marked thus #. Definitions which are identical to those in FAR Part 1 are marked thus *. ]
5 New, amended and corrected text is enclosed within heavy brackets.
Preambles
First Issue Effective: 9.4.76
This issue of JAR-1 contains definitions and abbreviations pertinent to those Parts of JAR so far issued, hence no reference will be found, for example, to helicopters or helicopter engines.
JAR-1 will be amended as necessary when other Parts of JAR are issued.
Amendment 1 Effective: 30.11.77
Definitions of 'VD/MD', 'VTmax' and 'V3' have been added.
Definitions of various terms and abbreviations used in the oxygen system requirements of JAR-25, Sub-part F, have been added.
Definitions of 'Fireproof', 'Fire-resistant' and 'Standard Flame' have been added.
A definition of 'Harness' has been added.
Amendment 2 Effective: 4.8.80
Definitions of 'TSO' and 'MIL Spec' have been added.
Definitions of 'Detent', 'Gate' and 'Safety Catch' have been added.
The definition of 'Accelerate-stop Distance' has been deleted.
A definition of 'V1' has been added.
A definition of 'Notice of Proposed Amendment' has been added.
The definition of 'True Airspeed' has been amended.
Definitions of 'Sailplane' and 'Powered Sailplane' have been added.
Definitions of 'VH' and 'VY' have been added.
A definition of 'NPA' has been added.
Amendment 3 Effective: 1.7.81
A definition of 'Normal operating differential pressure' has been added.
A definition of 'VT' has been added.
A definition of 'VW' has been added.
Change 4 Effective: 1.6.87
The main purpose of this amendment is to incorporate the engine and propeller definitions which have been temporarily included in JAR-E. The definitions will be deleted from JAR-E by a future amendment.
Also, the definitions applicable to auxiliary power units from JAR-APU have been incorporated.
The following other amendments have also been made:-
An amendment to the JAR Secretariat address on page ii.
Addition of new paragraphs to the Foreword and revision of other paragraphs.
Incorporation of minor editorial improvements in several places.
Boxes have been put round the National Variants.
Addition of the definition of VS1g.
Change 5 Effective 15.7.96
The main purpose of this Amendment is to incorporate the priority definitions contained in NPA 1-7. Many of these derive from the need for definitions following the adoption of JAR-OPS. NPA 1-5 'Rotorcraft definitions', drafted following the adoption of JAR-27 & JAR-29, is also incorporated in this amendment. A number of definitions arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3 & NPA 1-2 are included. NPA 25D-181 Rev 3 allows for the deletion of the remaining National Variants in JAR-1 (French NVs for Fireproof & Fire-resistant).
The following amendments have been made:-
An amendment to the addresses and the list of JAA member States on page ii.
Revision of the Foreword.
Incorporation of minor editorial improvements in several places.
A definition of 'Accepted/Acceptable' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Aerial Work' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
The definition of 'Aircraft' has been amended, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Aircraft Type' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
The definition of 'Approved' has been deleted, and is replaced by a definition of 'Approved by the Authority', arising from NPA 1-7.
The definition of 'Authority' has been amended, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Autorotation' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Auxiliary rotor' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Category' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5 & NPA 1-7.
The definition of 'Category II operation' is deleted, arising from 'Category' in NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Commercial Air Transportation' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
The definition of 'Commuter aeroplane category', introduced into OP 1/91/1 (NPA 1-4) is deleted, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Engine Type' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'External load' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'External-load attaching means' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Final take-off speed' has been added, arising from NPA 1-2.
The definition of 'Fireproof' has been amended, arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3.
The French NV for 'Fireproof' has been deleted, arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3.
The definition of 'Fire-resistant' has been amended, arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3.
The French NV for 'Fire-resistant' has been deleted, arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3.
The definition of 'Flight Time' has been amended, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Gyroplane' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Helicopter' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5 & NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Heliport' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
The definition of 'Large aeroplane' has been amended, first by OP 1/91/1 (NPA 1-4), and subsequently further amended by NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Main rotor(s)' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Maintenance' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'Reference landing speed' has been added, arising from NPA 1-2.
A definition of 'Rotorcraft' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'Rotorcraft-load combination' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
The definition of 'Standard Flame' is deleted, arising from NPA 25D-181 Rev 3.
A definition of 'Take-off safety speed' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
Texts in Section 2 have been re-named as either IEM or AMC from the existing title, 'ACJ'.
The definition of 'CAT II' is deleted, arising from the introduction 'Category' in NPA 1-7.
A definition of 'LDP' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'OEI' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'rpm' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
A definition of 'TDP' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
The definition of 'VAT' is deleted, arising from NPA 1-2.
A definition of 'VFTO' has been added, arising from NPA 1-2.
A definition of 'VREF' has been added, arising from NPA 1-2.
A definition of 'VTOSS' has been added, arising from NPA 1-5.
An IEM to 'Commercial Air Transportation' has been added, arising from NPA 1-7.


 

Section 1 - Definitions and Abbreviations

JAR 1.1 General Definitions

'Abortive Start' (turbine engines) means an attempt to start, in which the engine lights up, but fails to accelerate.
NOTE: The handling of the engine is assumed to be in accordance with the instructions laid down by the engine manufacturer to be followed in these circumstances.
'Acceleration Datum Conditions' (turbine engines) means the engine conditions, e.g. rotational speed, torque, exhaust gas temperature, as appropriate, from which, during the type endurance test, the specified accelerations to 95% of take-off power and/or thrust is timed. Unless otherwise agreed by the Authority, the power and/or thrust at the acceleration datum conditions is not greater than 10% of take-off power and/or thrust and the time to 95% of take-off power and/or thrust is not greater than 5 seconds.
[ 'Accepted/Acceptable' means not objected to by the Authority as suitable for the purpose intended. ]
'Adjustable Pitch Propeller' means a propeller, the pitch setting of which can be conveniently changed in the course of ordinary field maintenance, but which cannot be changed when the propeller is rotating.
[ #'Aerial Work' means an aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used for specialised services such as agriculture, construction, photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. ]
*'Aerodynamic coefficients' means non-dimensional coefficients for aerodynamic forces and moments.
*'Aeroplane' means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. (FAR Part 1 definition of 'Airplane')
*'Airborne' means entirely supported by aerodynamic forces (JAR-25 only).
[ #'Aircraft' means a machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface. ]
[ 'Aircraft Type' as used with respect to;
a. licensing and operations of flight crew, is defined in JAR-FCL;
b. type certification of aircraft, is defined in JAR-21;
c. cabin crew, is defined in JAR-OPS; or
d. certifying staff, is defined in JAR-145. ]
[ 'Aircraft Variant' as used with respect to the licensing and operation of flight crew, means an aircraft of the same basic certificated type which contain modifications not resulting in significant changes of handling and/or flight characteristic, or flight crew complement, but causing significant changes to equipment and/or procedures. ]
*'Airframe' means the fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, aerofoil surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating aerofoils of engines), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories and controls.
*'Alternate airport' means an airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable.
*'Appliance' means any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus, appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment, that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not part of an airframe, engine, or propeller.
'Applicant' means a person applying for approval of an aircraft or any part thereof.
[ 'Approved by the Authority' means documented by the Authority as suitable for the purpose intended. ]
'Atmosphere, International Standard' means the atmosphere defined in ICAO Document 7488/2. For the purposes of JAR the following is acceptable:-
a. The air is a perfect dry gas;
b The temperature at sea-level is 15C;
c. The pressure at sea-level is 1.013250 x 105 Pa (29.92 in Hg) (1013.2 mbar);
d. The temperature gradient from sea-level to the altitude at which the temperature becomes -56.5C is 3.25C per 500 m (1.98C/1000 ft);
e. The density at sea level ro, under the above conditions is 1.2250 kg/m3 (0.002378 slugs/ft3); for the density at altitudes up to 15 000 m (50 000 ft) see Table 1.
NOTE: r is the density appropriate to the altitude and r/ro the relative density is indicated by s.
[ 'Authority' means the competent body responsible for the safety regulation of Civil Aviation. (See IEM 1.1, Authority). ]
[ *'Autorotation' means a rotorcraft flight condition in which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of the air when the rotorcraft is in motion. ]
Auxiliary Power Units:-
Definitions applicable to auxiliary power units:-
a. 'Accessory drives' means any drive shaft or utility mounting pad, furnished as a part of the auxiliary power unit, that is used for the extraction of power to drive accessories, components, or controls essential to the operation of the auxiliary power unit or any of its associated systems.
b. 'Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)' means any gas turbine-powered unit delivering rotating shaft power, compressor air, or both which is not intended for direct propulsion of an aircraft.
c. 'Blade' means an energy transforming element of the compressor or turbine rotors whether integral or attached design.
d. 'Compressor air' means compressed air that is provided by the APU to do work whether it is extracted or bled from any point of the compressor section of the gas turbine engine or produced from a compressor driven by the APU.
e. 'Containment' means retention within the APU of all high energy rotor fragments resulting from the failure of a high energy rotor.
f. 'Critical rotor stage' means the compressor and turbine stages whose rotors have the smallest margin of safety under the conditions of speed and temperature shown in Appendix 1, paragraph 7.10 of JAR-APU.
g. 'Demonstrate' means to prove by physical test under the conditions specified in Appendix 1 of JAR-APU.
h. 'Essential APU' means an APU which produces bleed air and/or power to drive accessories necessary for the dispatch of the aircraft to maintain safe aircraft operation.
i. 'High energy rotor' means a rotating component or assembly which, when ruptured, will generate high kinetic energy fragments.
j. 'Major part' means a part of whose failure might adversely affect the operational integrity of the unit.
k. 'Maximum allowable speed' means the maximum rotor speed which the APU would experience under overload or transient conditions and is limited by installed safety devices.
l. 'Maximum allowable temperature' means the maximum exhaust gas temperature (EGT) or turbine inlet temperature (TIT) which the APU would experience during overload or transient conditions and is limited by installed safety devices.
m 'Minor part' means a part which is not a major part.
n. 'Non-essential APU' means an APU which may be used on the aircraft as a matter of convenience, either on the ground or in flight, and may be shut down without jeopardising safe aircraft operations.
o. 'Output provisions' means any drive pad or compressed air output flange intended for aircraft use to extract usable shaft or pneumatic power from the APU.
p. 'Rated output' means the approved shaft power or compressed air output or both, that is developed statically at standard sea-level atmospheric conditions for unrestricted periods of use.
q. 'Rated temperature' means the maximum turbine inlet or exhaust gas temperature at which the engine can operate at rated output and speed.
r. 'Rotor' means a rotating component or assembly including blades with the exception of accessory drive shafts and gears.
s. 'Start' means an acceleration from the initiation of operation or starter torque to a stabilised speed and temperature in the governed ranges without exceeding approved limits.
t. 'Substantiate' means to prove by presentation of adequate evidence obtained by demonstration or analysis or both.
u. 'Type' means all of a series of units each one of which was developed as an alternative configuration or refinement of the same basic unit.
[ 'Auxiliary rotor' means a rotor that principally serves to counteract the effect of the main rotor torque on a rotorcraft and/or to manoeuvre the rotorcraft about one or more of its three principle axes. ]
'Beta Control' means a system whereby the propeller can be operated at blade angles directly selected by the air crew, or by other means, and normally used during the approach and ground handling.
'Boost Pressure' (piston engines) means the manifold pressure measured relative to standard sea-level atmospheric pressure.
*'Brake Horsepower' means the power delivered at the propeller shaft (main drive or main output) of an aircraft engine.
*'Calibrated airspeed' means indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.
[ 'Category' as used with respect to;
a. licensing of flight crew, is defined in JAR-FCL;
b. type certification of aircraft, is defined in JAR-21;
c. certifying staff, is defined in JAR-145.
d. aerodrome operating minima required in JAR-OPS, is defined in JAR-OPS 1.430;
e. all weather operations in accordance with JAR-AWO, is defined in JAR-AWO 201; or
f. all weather operations in accordance with JAR-OPS, is defined in JAR-OPS 1.430.
Category A, with respect to rotorcraft, means a multi-engined rotorcraft designed with engine and system isolation features specified in JAR-27 / JAR-29 and capable of operations using take-off and landing data scheduled under a critical engine failure concept which assures adequate designated surface area and adequate performance capability for continued safe flight or safe rejected take-off in the event of engine failure.
Category B, with respect to rotorcraft, means a single-engine or multi-engine rotorcraft which does not meet Category A standards. Category B rotorcraft have no guaranteed capability to continue safe flight in the event of an engine failure, and unscheduled landing is assumed. ]
'Charge Cooling' (piston engines) means the percentage degree of charge cooling, quantitatively expressed as:-

where
t1 is the temperature of the air entering the charge cooler coolant radiator in the power-plant,
t2 is the temperature of the charge without cooling, and
t3 is the temperature of the charge with cooling.
'Clearway' means, for turbine engine powered aeroplanes certificated after August 29, 1959, an area beyond the runway, not less than 152 m (500 ft) wide, centrally located about the extended centreline of the runway, and under the control of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not exceeding 1.25%, above which no object or terrain protrudes. However, threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their height above the end of the runway is 0.66 m (26 ins) or less and if they are located to each side of the runway.
Climates, Standard
NOTE: This sub-paragraph defines three standard climates - Temperate, Tropical and Arctic - by stating the envelope conditions applicable to each. The conditions thus represented are acceptable as giving suitable design criteria for aeroplanes intended for operation in such regions. They are drawn up on the basis of conditions unlikely to be exceeded more often than on one day per year except that they do not cover the extremes of temperature occasionally reached in tropical deserts or in Siberia in winter.
The Temperate, Tropical and Arctic climates are defined by:-
a. The temperature envelopes enclosed by the appropriate maximum and minimum temperature lines of Fig. 1, from zero metres (feet) to the selected height (e.g. the temperatures appropriate to 0 - 10 000 m (0 - 30 000 ft)) in the standard Temperate climate are those within the envelope A, B, C, D, in Fig. 1;
b. Every point included in these envelopes being associated with a relative humidity range of 20% to 100%; except that in the conditions represented by the area E, F, G in Fig. 1 the relative humidities shall be assumed to vary from 100% maximum and 20% minimum respectively at the line EF to the value appropriate to the height at the line GF. The value of relative humidity on the line GF shall be taken to vary linearly from 100% maximum and 20% minimum at F to some lower values at G (given here as 10% maximum and 2% minimum);
c. Every point included in these envelopes being associated with the International standard pressure (ICAO) appropriate to the height, as shown in Table 1;
d. Every point included in these envelopes being associated with the density corresponding to the temperature, pressure and humidity; extreme values are given in Table 1.
These conditions do not cover variation of pressure from the International standard. This shall be allowed for by assuming a variation of pressure 5% above and below the International standard pressure (ICAO) associated with the International standard temperature (ICAO). (see IEM 1.1, Climates, Standard.)
[ 'Commercial Air Transportation' means the transportation by air of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire. (See IEM 1.1, Commercial Air Transportation.) ]
'Continuous Maximum Icing' (see 'Icing Atmospheric Conditions')
*'Crewmember' means a person assigned to perform duty in an aircraft during flight time.
'Critical Altitude' (piston engines) means the maximum attitude at which, in standard atmosphere, it is possible to maintain, at a specified rotational speed without ram, a specified power or a specified manifold pressure. Unless otherwise stated, the critical altitude is the maximum altitude at which it is possible to maintain, without ram, at the maximum continuous rotational speed, one of the following:-
a. The maximum continuous power, in the case of engines for which this power rating is the same at sea level and at the rated altitude.
b. The maximum continuous rated manifold pressure, in the case of engines the maximum continuous power of which, is governed by a constant manifold pressure.
*'Critical Engine' means the engine whose failure would most adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of an aircraft.
'Critical Part.' Where the failure analysis shows that a part must achieve and maintain a particularly high level of integrity if Hazardous Effects are not to occur at a rate in excess of Extremely Remote then such a part shall be identified as a Critical Part.
'Decision Height', with respect to the operation of aircraft, means the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been visually assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety.
'Detent' means a mechanical arrangement which indicates, by feel, a given position of an operating control. Once the operating control is placed in this position the detent will hold the lever there and an additional-to-normal force will be required to move the operating control away from the position. (Applicable to JAR-25 only.)
'Engine' means an engine used or intended to be used for aircraft propulsion. It consists of at least those components and equipment necessary for the functioning and control, but excludes the propeller.
'Engine Dry Weight' means the weight of an engine as type certificated or a weight which is clearly derived from this by specified additions or omissions.
[ 'Engine Type' means engines which are similar in design (See JAR-21). ]
*'Equivalent airspeed' means the calibrated airspeed of an aircraft corrected for adiabatic compressible flow for the particular altitude. Equivalent airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level.
'Exhaust Gas Temperature' (turbine engines) means the average temperature of the exhaust gas stream obtained in an approved manner.
[ 'External load' means a load that is carried, towed or extends, outside the aircraft fuselage. ]
[ *'External load attaching means' means the structural components used to attach an external load to an aircraft, including external-load containers, the backup structure at the attachment points, and any quick-release device used to jettison the external load. ]
'False Start' (turbine engines) means an attempt to start in which the engine fails to light up.
NOTE: The handling of the engine is assumed to be in accordance with the instructions laid down by the engine manufacturer to be followed in these circumstances.
'Feathered Pitch' means the pitch setting, specified in the appropriate propeller manual, which in flight with the engine stopped, gives approximately the minimum drag, and corresponds with a windmilling torque of approximately zero.
[ 'Final take-off speed' means the speed of the aeroplane that exists at the end of the take-off path in the en-route configuration with one engine inoperative. ]
[ 'Fireproof.' With respect to materials, components and equipment, means the capability to withstand the application of heat by a flame, for a period of 15 minutes without any failure that would create a hazard to the aircraft. The flame will have the following characteristics:-
Temperature 1100C 80C
Heat Flux Density 116 KW/m2 10 KW/m2
NOTE: For materials this is considered to be equivalent to the capability of withstanding a fire at least as well as steel or titanium in dimensions appropriate for the purposes for which they are used. ]
[ 'Fire-resistant.' With respect to materials, components and equipment, means the capability to withstand the application of heat by a flame, as defined for 'Fireproof', for a period of 5 minutes without any failure that would create a hazard to the aircraft.
NOTE: For materials this is considered to be equivalent to the capability of withstanding a fire at least as well as aluminium alloy in dimensions appropriate for the purposes for which they are used. ]
'First aid oxygen' means the additional oxygen provided for the use of passengers, who do not satisfactorily recover following subjection to excessive cabin altitudes, during which they had been provided with supplemental oxygen.
'Fixed Pitch Propeller' means a propeller, the pitch of which cannot be changed, except by processes constituting a workshop operation.
'Flame resistant' means not susceptible to combustion to the point of propagating a flame, beyond safe limits, after the ignition source is removed.
'Flammable', with respect to a fluid or gas, means susceptible to igniting readily or exploding.
'Flap extended speed' means the highest speed permissible with wing-flaps in a prescribed extended position.
'Flash resistant' means not susceptible to burning violently when ignited.
*'Flight crewmember' means a pilot, flight engineer, or flight navigator assigned to duty in an aircraft during flight time.
[ 'Flight Time' as used with respect to;
a. licensing of flight crew, is defined in JAR-FCL;
b. aircraft operations, is defined in JAR-OPS;
c. type certification of aircraft, is defined in JAR-21;
d. maintenance, is defined in JAR-OPS Subpart M. ]
'Gate' means a mechanical arrangement which provides positive stops at given positions of an operating control and is such that a separate movement of the operating control in another direction is necessary in order to initiate movement beyond one of the stops. (Applicable to JAR-25 only.)
'Ground Idling Conditions' (turbine engines) means the conditions of minimum rotational speed associated with zero forward speed and the maximum exhaust gas temperature at this speed.
[ 'Gyroplane' means a rotorcraft the rotors of which are not engine driven except for initial starting, but are made to rotate by action of the air when the rotorcraft is moving, and the means of propulsion of which, consisting usually of conventional propellers, is independent of the rotor system. ]
'Harness' means the equipment, consisting of two shoulder straps and a lap belt, which is provided to restrain a member of the flight crew against inertia loads occurring in emergency conditions.
[ *'Helicopter' means a rotorcraft that, for its horizontal motion, depends principally on its engine-driven rotors. ]
[ *'Heliport' means an area of land, water, or structure used or intended to be used for the landing and take-off of helicopters. ]
'Icing Atmospheric Conditions'. The definitions of atmospheric conditions are given in this sub-paragraph and Figures 2 to 7:-
a. 'Continuous Maximum Icing'. The maximum continuous intensity of atmospheric icing conditions (continuous maximum icing) is defined by the variables of the cloud liquid water content, the mean effective diameter of the cloud droplets, the ambient air temperature, and the inter-relationship of these three variables as shown in Fig. 2. The limiting icing envelope in terms of altitude and temperature is given in Fig. 3. The inter-relationship of cloud liquid water content with droplet diameter and altitude is determined from Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The cloud liquid water content for continuous maximum icing conditions of a horizontal extent, other than 17.4 n miles, is determined by the value of liquid water content of Fig. 2, multiplied by the appropriate factor from Fig. 4.
b. 'Intermittent Maximum Icing'. The intermittent maximum intensity of atmospheric icing conditions (intermittent maximum icing) is defined by the variables of the cloud liquid water content, the mean effective diameter of the cloud droplets, the ambient air temperature, and the inter-relationship of these three variables as shown in Fig. 5. The limiting icing envelope in terms of altitude and temperature is given in Fig. 6. The inter-relationship of cloud liquid water content with droplet diameter and altitude is determined from Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The cloud liquid water content for intermittent maximum icing conditions of a horizontal extent, other than 2.6 n miles, is determined by the value of cloud liquid water content of Fig. 5 multiplied by the appropriate factor in Fig. 7 .
*'IFR conditions' means weather conditions below the minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
*'Indicated airspeed' means the speed of an aircraft as shown on its pitot static airspeed indicator calibrated to reflect standard atmosphere adiabatic compressible flow at sea level uncorrected for airspeed system errors.
*'Instrument' means a device using an internal mechanism to show visually or aurally the attitude, altitude, or operation of an aircraft or aircraft part. It includes electronic devices for automatically controlling an aircraft in flight.
'Intermittent Maximum Icing' (see 'Icing Atmospheric Conditions')
*'Landing gear extended speed' means the maximum speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown with the landing gear extended.
*'Landing gear operating speed' means the maximum speed at which the landing gear can be safely extended or retracted.
[ 'Large aeroplane' means an aeroplane of more than 5700 kg (12,500 pounds) maximum certificated take-off weight. The category 'Large Aeroplane' does not include the commuter aeroplane category (For commuter aeroplane category, see JAR 23.1 and JAR 23.3). ]
*'Load factor' means the ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft. The specified load is expressed in terms of any of the following: aerodynamic forces, inertia forces, or ground or water reactions.
*'Mach number' means the ratio of true air speed to the speed of sound.
[ 'Main rotor(s)' means the rotor or rotors that supply the principal lift to a rotorcraft. ]
[ 'Maintenance' means any one or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification or defect rectification of an aircraft/aircraft component. ]
'Manifold Pressure' piston engines means the absolute static pressure measured at the appropriate point in the induction system, usually in inches or millimetres of mercury.
'Maximum Engine Overspeed' (20 second-piston engines) means the maximum engine rotational speed, inadvertent occurrence of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the engine from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause).
'Maximum Engine Overspeed(s)' (20 second-turbine engines) means the maximum rotational speed of each mechanically independent main rotating system of an engine, inadvertent occurrence of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the engine from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause). NOTE: For each main rotating system this speed is normally not less than the maximum transient rpm in non-fault conditions.
'Maximum Engine Over-torque' (20 second-applicable only to turbo-propeller and turbo-shaft engines incorporating free power-turbines) means the maximum torque of the free power-turbine, inadvertent occurrence of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the engine from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause).
'Maximum Power-turbine Overspeed' (20 second-applicable only to free power-turbine engines for helicopters) means the maximum rotational speed of the free power-turbine, inadvertent occurrence of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the engine from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause).
'Maximum Exhaust Gas Overtemperature' (20 second-turbine engines) means the maximum engine exhaust gas temperature, inadvertent use of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the engine from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause).
NOTE: This is not to be confused with maximum temperatures established for use during starting operations.
'Maximum Power-turbine Speed for Autorotation' (applicable only to free power-turbine engines for helicopters) means the maximum rotational speed of the power-turbine permitted during autorotation for periods of unrestricted duration.
'Maximum Governed Rotational Speed' (variable pitch (governing) propellers) means the maximum rotational speed as determined by the setting of the propeller governor or control mechanism.
'Maximum Permissible Rotational Speed' (fixed, adjustable or variable (non-governing) pitch propellers) means the maximum propeller rotational speed permitted in normal or likely emergency operation.
'Maximum Propeller Overspeed' (20 second) means the maximum propeller rotational speed, inadvertent occurrence of which for periods of up to 20 seconds, has been agreed not to require rejection of the propeller from service or maintenance action (other than to correct the cause).
'Minimum Drainage Period After a False Start' (turbine engines) means the minimum period necessary to allow surplus fuel to drain from the engine prior to making a further attempt to start the engine. The period is measured from the time at which the starter is switched off and/or the engine fuel cock is closed during a false start.
'Minimum Governed Rotational Speed' (variable pitch (governing) propellers) means the minimum rotational speed as determined by the setting of the propeller governor or control mechanism .
'Minimum Take-off Crankshaft Rotational Speed' (piston engines) means the minimum crankshaft rotational speed permissible for use with the maximum take-off manifold pressure.
'Modified Engine' means an engine, previously approved, in which hitherto unapproved modifications have been embodied.
'Modified Propeller' means a propeller previously approved, in which hitherto unapproved modifications have been embodied.
'Module'. An engine (or propeller) Module is a group of engine (or propeller) components defined by the constructor and designed to be replaceable without mechanical or performance difficulties. It is uniquely identified and amenable to the setting of an overhaul life separate from other parts of the engine (or propeller).
'New Engine' means an engine which has not been subjected to in-service operations, essentially identical in design, materials and methods of construction with one which has been type certificated.
'New Propeller' means a propeller which has not been subjected to in-service operations, essentially identical in design, materials and methods of construction with one which has been type certificated .
'Normal operating differential pressure' means the pressure differential between the cabin pressure and the outside ambient pressure, including the tolerances of the normal pressure regulating system.
'Notice of Proposed Amendment' means a notice of a proposed amendment to a JAR Code.
'Overhauled Engine or Module' means an engine or module which has been repaired or re-conditioned to a standard which renders it eligible for the complete overhaul period agreed by the Authority for the particular type of engine.
'Overhauled Propeller' means a propeller which has been repaired or re-conditioned to a standard which renders it eligible for the complete overhaul period agreed by the Authority for the particular type of propeller.
#*'Pilot in command' means the pilot responsible for the operation and safety of an aircraft during flight time.
Piston Engines :-
Power definitions applicable to engines for aeroplanes and helicopters:-
a. 'Take-off Power' means the output shaft power identified in the performance data for use during take-off, discontinued approach and baulked landing and limited in use to a continuous period of not more than 5 minutes,
b. 'Take-off Power Rating' means the test bed minimum acceptance output shaft power as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the declared maximum coolant/cylinder head temperatures and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
c. Maximum Continuous Power' means the output shaft power identified in the performance data for use during periods of unrestricted duration.
NOTE: It should not be assumed that maximum continuous power is necessarily appropriate to normal operations. The power to be used in such operations is a matter between the constructor and the operator.
d. 'Maximum Continuous Power Rating' means the minimum test bed acceptance power, as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the declared maximum coolant/cylinder head temperatures and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
e. 'Maximum Recommended Cruising Power Conditions' means the crankshaft rotational speed, engine manifold pressure and any other parameters recommended in the engine manuals as appropriate for cruising operation.
f. 'Maximum Best Economy Cruising Power Conditions' means the crankshaft rotational speed, engine manifold pressure and any other parameters recommended in the engine manuals as appropriate for use with economical-cruising mixture strength.
'Pitch Setting' means the propeller blade setting determined by the blade angle, measured in a manner and at a radius declared by the manufacturer and specified in the appropriate Engine Manual.
'Powered sailplane' means an aircraft, equipped with one or more engines having, with engine(s) inoperative, the characteristics of a sailplane.
'Propeller' means a complete propeller including all parts attached to and rotating with the hub and blades, and all equipment required for the control and operation of the propeller.
'Propeller Equipment' means all equipment used with, or necessary for the control and operation of the propeller.
'Protective breathing equipment' means breathing equipment for protection against smoke, fumes and other harmful gases.
'Prototype Engine' means the first engine, of a type and arrangement not previously approved, to be submitted for type-approval test.
'Prototype Propeller' means the first propeller of a type and arrangement not previously approved, to be submitted for type-approval tests.
[ 'Reference landing speed' means the speed of the aeroplane, in a specified landing configuration, at the point where it descends through the landing screen height in the determination of the landing distance for manual landings. ]
'Reverse Pitch' means the blade angle used for producing reverse thrust with a propeller.
'Rotational Direction of Equipment' means the direction of rotation as observed when looking at the drive face of the equipment (usually described as 'clockwise' or 'anti-clockwise').
'Rotational Speed' (engine) means, unless otherwise qualified (e.g. propeller rotational speed), the rotational speed in revolutions per minute of the engine crankshaft or its equivalent.
'Rotational Speed' (propeller) means, unless otherwise specified (e.g. propeller rpm), the speed in revolutions per minute of the engine crankshaft or its equivalent.
[ *'Rotorcraft' means a heavier-than-air aircraft that depends principally for its support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors. ]
[ *'Rotorcraft-load combination' means the combination of a rotorcraft and an external-load, including the external load attaching means. Rotorcraft-load combinations are designated as Class A, Class B, Class C and Class D as follows:
a. Class A rotorcraft-load combination means one in which the external load cannot move freely, cannot be jettisoned, and does not extend below the landing gear.
b. Class B rotorcraft-load combination means one in which the external load is jettisonable and is lifted free of land or water during the rotorcraft operation.
c. Class C rotorcraft-load combination means one in which the external load is jettisonable and remains in contact with land or water during the rotorcraft operation.
d. Class D rotorcraft-load combination means one in which the external load is other than a Class A, B or C and has been specifically approved by the Authority for that operation. ]
'Safety catch' means a mechanism which locks an operating control in a given position. It engages automatically whenever the operating control is put into that position but has to be manually taken out of engagement in order to move the operating control away from that position. (Applicable to JAR-25 only.)
'Sailplane' means a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its fixed lifting surfaces, the free flight of which does not depend on an engine.
'Series Propeller' means a propeller essentially identical in design, materials, and methods of construction, with one which has been previously approved.
'Standard Atmosphere' See 'Atmosphere, International Standard'.
*'Stopway' means an area beyond the take-off runway, no less wide than the runway and centred upon the extended centreline of the runway, able to support the aeroplane during an abortive take-off, without causing structural damage to the aeroplane, and designated by the airport authorities for use in decelerating the aeroplane during an abortive take-off.
'Supplemental oxygen' means the additional oxygen required to protect each occupant against the adverse effects of excessive cabin altitude and to maintain acceptable physiological conditions.
[ *'Take-off safety speed' means a referenced airspeed obtained after lift-off at which the required one-engine-inoperative climb performance can be achieved. ]
Terms associated with probabilities (for engines):-
NOTE: Because an Effect can only be assessed in relation to a complete aircraft and as, for airworthiness purposes, each category of Effect is related to a particular frequency of occurrence, the definitions and associated numerical values are given in aircraft terms (hours in flight).
Frequency of occurrences:-
a 'Reasonably Probable' means unlikely to occur often during the operation of each aircraft of the type but which may occur several times during the total operational life of each aircraft of the types in which the engine may be installed.
NOTE: Where numerical values are used this may normally be interpreted as a probability in the range 10-3 to 10-5 per hour of flight.
b. 'Remote' means unlikely to occur to each aircraft during its total operational life but may occur several times when considering the total operational life of a number of aircraft of the type in which the engine is installed.
NOTE: Where numerical values are used this may normally be interpreted as a probability in the range 10-5 to 10-7 per hour of flight.
c. 'Extremely Remote' means unlikely to occur when considering the total operational life of a number of aircraft of the type in which the engine is installed, but nevertheless, has to be regarded a being possible.
NOTE: Where numerical values are used this may normally be interpreted as a probability in the range 10-7 to 10-9 per hour of flight.
'Total Equivalent Static Power' (turbine engines) means:-
Total equivalent static power kW (S.I. Units) =

Total equivalent static power (horse-power) (Non-S.I. Units) =

*'True airspeed' means the airspeed of an aircraft relative to undisturbed air. True airspeed is equal to equivalent airspeed multiplied by (ro/r)1/2.
Turbine Engines:-
Power/thrust definitions applicable to engines for aeroplanes and helicopters:-
NOTES: (1) The performance data are provided be the engine constructor and give the power and/or thrust produced by an engine under specified conditions (e.g. intake efficiency, forward speed, atmospheric temperature) when operating within the limitations (e.g. rpm, exhaust gas temperature) which have been approved for use with the defined power/thrust condition.
(2) Definitions of power/thrust in terms of usage and duration (and the use of these to form the basis of certain Flight Manual limitations) is not intended to remove the pilot's right to judge whether and to what extent such limitations may be ignored in emergency conditions.
a 'Maximum Contingency Power and/or Thrust' means the power and/or thrust identified in the performance data for use when a power-unit has failed or been shut down during take-off, baulked landing or prior to a discontinued approach and limited in use for a continuous period of not more than 2 minutes.
NOTE: The 2 minute period for use of maximum contingency power and/or thrust is additional to the 5 minute or 10 minute period at take-off power and/or thrust (see c.) and may be added to the take-off limitation at any point in time.
b. 'Maximum Contingency Power and/or Thrust Rating' means the minimum test bed acceptance power and/or thrust, as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the specified conditions and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
c. 'Take-off Power and/or Thrust' means the power and/or thrust identified in the performance data for use during take-off, discontinued approach and baulked landing; and
i. for aeroplanes and helicopters, limited in use to a continuous period of not more than 5 minutes; and
ii. for aeroplanes only (when specifically requested), limited in use to a continuous period of not more than 10 minutes in the event of a power-unit having failed or been shut down.
d. 'Take-off Power and/or Thrust Rating' means the minimum test bed acceptance power and/or thrust as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the specified conditions and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
e. 'Intermediate Contingency Power and/or Thrust' means the power and/or thrust identified in the performance data for use after take-off when a power-unit has failed or been shut down, during periods of unrestricted duration.
f. 'Intermediate Contingency Power and/or Thrust Rating' means the minimum test bed acceptance power and/or thrust, as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the specified conditions and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
g. '30-Minute Contingency Power' (applicable to multi-engined helicopters only) means the power identified in the performance data for use after take-off when an engine has failed or been shut down, and limited in scheduled use for a total period of not more than 30 minutes in any one flight.
h. '30-Minute Contingency Power Rating' (applicable to multi-engined helicopters only) means the minimum test bed acceptance power, as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and overhauled engines when running at the specified conditions and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
j. 'Maximum Continuous Power and/or Thrust' means the power and/or thrust identified in the performance data for use during periods of unrestricted duration.
NOTE: It should not be assumed that the maximum permitted continuous power and/or thrust is appropriate to normal operations. The power to be used in such conditions can only be arrived at by discussion between the constructors and operators, due regard being paid to the effect of such factors as the type of operation envisaged, the route and climatic conditions, together with the overhaul period and overhaul costs which it is desired to achieve.
k. 'Maximum Continuous Power and/or Thrust Rating' means the minimum test bed acceptance power and/or thrust, as stated in the engine type certificate data sheet, of series and newly overhauled engines when running at the specified conditions and within the appropriate acceptance limitations.
'Variable Pitch Propellers' means a propeller, the pitch setting of which changes or can be changed, when the propeller is rotating or stationary. This includes:-
a. A propeller, the pitch setting of which is directly under the control of the flight crew (controllable pitch propeller).
b. A propeller, the pitch setting of which is controlled by a governor or other automatic means which may be either integral with the propeller or a separately mounted equipment and which may or may not be controlled by the flight crew (constant speed propeller).
c. A propeller, the pitch setting of which may be controlled by a combination of the methods of a. and b.

 

JAR 1.2 Abbreviations and symbols

'ACJ' means Advisory Circular, Joint.
'APU' means auxiliary power unit.
'BTPS' means body temperature, pressure, saturated, i.e.37C, ambient pressure and saturated with water vapour at 47 mmHg partial pressure.
'BTPD' means body temperature, pressure, dry, i.e. 37C, ambient pressure and no water vapour.
*'CAS' means calibrated airspeed.
*'EAS' means equivalent airspeed.
*'IAS' means indicated airspeed.
*'ICAO' means International Civil Aviation Organisation.
#*'IFR' means instrument flight rules.
*'ILS' means instrument landing system.
'JAR' means Joint Aviation Requirements.
[ 'LDP' with respect to rotorcraft means the landing decision point. ]
*'M' means mach number.
'MIL Spec' means USA Military Specification.
'NPA' means Notice of Proposed Amendment.
'NTPD' means normal temperature, pressure, dry, i.e. 21C, 760 mmHg and no water vapour.
[ *'OEI' means one engine inoperative. ]
[ 'rpm' means revolutions per minute. ]
'STPD' means standard temperature, pressure, dry, i.e. 0C, 760 mmHg and no water vapour.
'TAS' means true airspeed.
'TSO' means Technical Standard Order.
[ 'TDP' with respect to rotorcraft means take-off decision point. ]
*'VA' means design manoeuvring speed.
*'VB' means design speed for maximum gust intensity.
*'VC' means design cruising speed.
'VD/MD' means design diving speed.
*'VDF/MDF' means demonstrated flight diving speed.
*'VF' means design flap speed.
'VF1' means the design flap speed for procedure flight conditions.
*'VFC/MFC' means maximum speed for stability characteristics.
*'VFE' means maximum flap extended speed.
[ 'VFTO' means final take-off speed. ]
#*'VFR' means visual flight rules.
'VH' means maximum speed in level flight with maximum continuous power.
*'VHF' means very high frequency.
*'VLE' means maximum landing gear extended speed.
*'VLO' means maximum landing gear operating speed.
*'VLOF' means lift-off speed.
*'VMC' means minimum control speed with the critical engine inoperative.
'VMCA' means the minimum control speed, take-off climb.
'VMCG' means the minimum control speed, on or near ground.
'VMCL' means the minimum control speed, approach and landing.
*'VMO/MMO' means maximum operating limit speed.
*'VMU' means minimum unstick speed.
*'VNE' means never-exceed speed.
*'VR' means rotation speed.
*'VRA' means rough airspeed.
'VREF' means reference landing speed.
'VS' means the stall speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the aeroplane is controllable.
'VSO' means the stall speed or the minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
'VS1' means the stall speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in a specified configuration.
'VS1g' means the one-g stall speed at which the aeroplane can develop a lift force (normal to the flight path) equal to its weight.
'VT' means maximum aerotow speed (JAR-22 only).
'VT' means threshold speed.
'VTmax' means maximum threshold speed.
[ *'VTOSS' means take-off safety speed for Category A rotorcraft. ]
'VW' means maximum winch-launch speed (JAR-22 only).
*'VY' means speed for best rate of climb.
*'V1' means take-off decision speed.
*'V2' means take-off safety speed.
*'V2min' means minimum take-off safety speed.
'V3' means steady initial climb speed with all engines operating.

 

STANDARD CLIMATES - S.I. UNITS

Fig .1
Not reproduced here!
NOTES: (1) This diagram gives envelope conditions for design purposes; it does not constitute an accurate representation of nay particular climate.
(2) The line BC has no significance other than as illustrating the text.


STANDARD CLIMATES - NON S.I. UNITS

Fig. 1
Not reproduced here!
NOTES: (1) This diagram gives envelope conditions for design purposes; it does not constitute an accurate representation of any particular climate.
(2) The line BC has no significance other than as illustrating the text.


Table 1
RELATIVE PRESSURES AND DENSITIES - S.I. UNITS


Not reproduced here!

Table 1
RELATIVE PRESSURES AND DENSITIES - NON S.I. UNITS


Not reproduced here!

CONTINUOUS MAXIMUM (STRATIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
LIQUID WATER CONTENT VS MEAN EFFECTIVE DROP DIAMETER

Fig. 2
Not reproduced here!

CONTINUOUS MAXIMUM (STRATIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE VS PRESSURE ALTITUDE

Fig. 3
Not reproduced here!

CONTINUOUS MAXIMUM (STRATIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
LIQUID WATER CONTENT FACTOR VS CLOUD HORIZONTAL DISTANCE

Fig. 4
Not reproduced here!

INTERMITTENT MAXIMUM (CUMULIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
LIQUID WATER CONTENT VS MEAN EFFECTIVE DROP DIAMETER

Fig. 5
Not reproduced here!

INTERMITTENT MAXIMUM (CUMULIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE VS PRESSURE ALTITUDE

Fig. 6
Not reproduced here!

INTERMITTENT MAXIMUM (CUMULIFORM CLOUDS)
ATMOSPHERIC ICING CONDITIONS
VARIATION OF LIQUID WATER CONTENT FACTOR WITH
CLOUD HORIZONTAL EXTENT

Fig. 7
Not reproduced here!


 

Section 2 - Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative/Explanatory Material (AMC & IEM)

1 GENERAL

1.1 This Section contains Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative/Explanatory Material that has been agreed for inclusion in JAR-1.
1.2 Where a particular JAR paragraph does not have an Acceptable Means of Compliance or any Interpretative/Explanatory Material, it is considered that no supplementary material is required.

2 PRESENTATION

2.1 The Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative/Explanatory Material are presented in full page width on loose pages, each page being identified by the date of issue or the Change number under which it is amended or reissued.
2.2 A numbering system has been used in which the Acceptable Means of Compliance or Interpretative/Explanatory Material uses the same number as the JAR paragraph to which it refers. The number is introduced by the letters AMC or IEM to distinguish the material from the JAR itself.
2.3 The acronyms AMC and IEM also indicate the nature of the material and for this purpose the two types of material are defined as follows:
Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) illustrate a means, or several alternative means, but not necessarily the only possible means by which a requirement can be met. It should however be noted that where a new AMC is developed, any such AMC (which may be additional to an existing AMC) will be amended into the document following consultation under the NPA procedure.
Interpretative/Explanatory Material (IEM) helps to illustrate the meaning of a requirement.
2.4 New AMC or IEM material may, in the first place, be made available rapidly by being published as a Temporary Guidance Leaflet (TGL). Operations TGLs can be found in the Joint Aviation Authorities Administrative & Guidance Material, Section 4 - Operations, Part Three: Temporary Guidance. The procedures associated with Temporary Guidance Leaflets are included in the Operations Joint Implementation Procedures, Section 4 - Operations, Part 2 Chapter 10.
Note: Any person who considers that there may be alternative AMCs or IEMs to those published should submit details to the Operations Director, with a copy to the Regulation Director, for alternatives to be properly considered by the JAA. Possible alternative AMCs or IEMs may not be used until published by the JAA as AMCs, IEMs or TGLs.
2.5 Explanatory Notes not forming part of the AMC or IEM text appear in a smaller typeface.
2.6 New, amended or corrected text is enclosed within heavy brackets.

 

[ IEM 1.1
Authority
See JAR 1.1
In this context, 'regulation' means not only the drafting of requirements, but also, though not limited to, such activities as implementation, interpretation and application of the statutory aviation requirements. ]


 

IEM to JAR 1.1
Climates, standard
See JAR 1.1
Climatic conditions:-
a. The standard climatic conditions are intended primarily for use in designing aircraft structure and equipment which should remain airworthy when subjected to the appropriate conditions.
b. Aircraft performance will vary considerably within the defined climates. It is not intended that any one stated performance should be achievable throughout the whole envelope of conditions but rather that sufficient performance data should be scheduled for an operator to determine the performance which will be achieved in particular conditions.
c. The climatic conditions given are conditions of the free atmosphere. The temperatures achieved in an aircraft in these atmospheric conditions may be considerably higher. In the absence of precise information as to the surface finish, ventilation and type of engine, etc., the following maximum ambient temperatures should be assumed:-

NOTE: Parts connected to the engine may attain higher temperatures.


 

[ IEM 1.1
Commercial Air Transportation
See JAR 1.1
Commercial Air Transportation is not intended to cover Aerial Work or Corporate Aviation. ]


 

Comment/Response Document

These documents contain a summary of responses to the various comments that were made on each NPA during the consultation period. In some cases, a general discussion on the evolution of the NPA is given.
1 Introduction
This document details the comments received, and the JAA HQ response to them, as a result of the consultation period for the draft Change 5 held between 26 February and 21 April 1996, and then from 26 April to 3 June 1996. The second consultation was required following the adverse response to the proposals for the definition of 'Authority'.
2 Discussion of the Comments
All bar one commentor agreed with the proposals for the draft Change 5, with one other NAA submitting a number of editorial points, all of which were addressed for the final version. The one adverse comment, from a JAA-NAA, addressed the definition of 'Authority'.
The NAA, who had not previously commented to this term during the consultation under NPA 1-7, objected to the word regulation being dropped from the proposed definition as it is not the Authority that is responsible for the safety of civil aviation, but the pilot/operator etc. The Authority, in their view, is responsible for the safety regulation of civil aviation.
The DEFWG in its review of the comments to NPA 1-7, noted that a number of commentors discussed the implications of the wording proposed. Most of the comments centred on the fact that regulation, when translated into other languages, only addressed the drafting of requirements and not their implementation, enforcement, or those other activities usually performed by an authority. One commentor proposed listing all these possible activities. This was considered to be too complex and the WG agreed to drop the word regulation.
Based on this new comment, it is proposed that the word regulation be reintroduced into the definition, and the clarification of the functions of an authority be handled by using the above referred comment, not in the definition, but as an IEM.
The proposed text, has been introduced into JAR-1 Change 5 without modification, based on the support of all those JSA commentors who responded. One editorial modification to the IEM was rejected on the basis that, as a rather complex and additional clarification to just one of the activities mentioned in the IEM, it was considered to add little to the reader's understanding of the text, and indeed, made the IEM less easy to read.

 

NPA 1-2

DEFINITIONS OF VREF AND VFTO

1. INTRODUCTION

The terms VREF (the reference landing speed) and VFTO (the final take-off speed with one engine inoperative) are widely used and understood operationally. It is convenient to use the same terminology in the airworthiness requirements and, indeed, they have been used in recent requirement proposals. However, these terms are not defined in JAR-1. This NPA proposes to remedy this by providing definitions of these terms for introduction into JAR-1.
The Flight Study Group (FSG) has reviewed the comments received as a result of circulation of this NPA to the JSA and Subscribers. It is noted that 6 respondents indicated support for the NPA as written, but 2 respondents suggested changes. The FSG's responses to these latter comments, and proposal for changes to the NPA to address these comments, are given below.

2. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES

2.1 Comments Raised by General Aviation Manufacturers Association.
2.1.1 Comment: Para 2.1. The definition of VREF should have 'at the 50 foot point' added to read as follows:

'VREF means the steady landing approach speed at the 50 foot point for a defined landing configuration.
Response: The view that the definition of VREF should be linked to the screen height is accepted. However, as a definition in JAR-1, it should be suitable for general applicability, whereas 50 feet may not be a significant discriminant in all cases; for example, the short landing proposals of FWP 205 which have been used as special conditions for some certifications we use a 35 feet screen height. This generality can be preserved, while addressing the intent of this comment, by referring to 'the screen height'.

On further consideration of the proposal, the FSG now suggest that the existing format of JAR-1 would be better reflected by putting the detailed definition of 'Reference landing speed' in JAR 1.1 and a simple explanation of the symbology 'VREF' in JAR 1.2. This reflected in the proposed revision to the NPA.
2.1.2 Comment: Para 3.1 GAMA has no argument with the 1g stall as long as the minimum speed remains as a method to determine stall speed. As such, the justification needs to be changed to reflect 'in addition to' rather than in 'in lieu of' the minimum speed.
Response The VS1g proposals were cited in the justification as the subject that had highlighted the desirability of adding formal definitions of VREF and VFTO to JAR-1. They are, however, completely separate subjects and as such it was perhaps inappropriate that the NPA justification might have suggested a link. The GAMA comment is therefore not considered relevant to the present NPA but should be borne in mind as a comment against the VS1g proposals which are to be published in the near future.
2.1.3 Comment: Para 3.2. It is believed that VETO is not widely used or understood. Additionally, GAMA sees no justification from the addition of 1g stall to require the incorporation of VFTO.
Response: It is necessary to determine and declare such a speed in establishing compliance with the final take-off climb requirement of JAR 25.121(C). The term VETO is in use and is believed to be generally understood. The introduction of this formal definition into JAR-1 is to ensure such clarity of understanding and to provide a simple term which is likely to be useful in various requirement drafting applications. No change to requirements or additional regulatory burden is involved. The response to the comment on para. 3.1 is equally relevant to the aspect of 1g stall speeds.
2.2 Comments Raised by the Aerospace Industries Association.
2.2.1 Comment: Proposal 2.1(b) - Landing Approach Speed.
Delete proposed addition of VREF and its definition.
If it is felt necessary to introduce an additional speed notation, for regulatory requirement usage, for the landing steady approach speed to a 50 foot height, the following is suggested.
'V50 means the steady landing approach speed used for the determination of the manual landing distance from a height of 50 feet for a defined landing configuration.
Note: This speed is also sometimes known operationally as VREF.'
JUSTIFICATION
It is recognised that VREF has been used operationally to refer to the steady landing approach speed for manual landings in the normal landing configurations. However there are many other places in the Approved Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) where the word 'reference' and the abbreviation 'ref' are used in conjunction with weights, speeds, field lengths, lines conditions and configurations other than landing configurations.
Response: The proposal to link the definition of VREF to the 50 feet point is similar to GAMA's first comment and the response to that comment is equally applicable (see 2.1.1 above). However, other aspects of this comment are not accepted. It is noted that AIA is the only respondent (of 8) to have queried the terminology. To say that this speed 'is sometimes known' as VREF is a gross understatement of its very widespread use. It is the purpose of formal definitions to avoid confusion. This is believed to be by far the most common interpretation of the term VREF and in the interests of avoiding confusion manufacturers should ensure it is not used for other purposes.
2.2.2 Comment: Proposal 2.2 - Final Take-Off Speed.
After 'path' insert 'in the en-route configuration'. The definition will then read as follows:
'VFTO means the final take-off speed that exists at the end of the take-off path in the en-route configuration with one engine inoperative'.
JUSTIFICATION
It is suggested that the above noted insert be added for clarity, since it is believed that this speed is meant to be that used in meeting the final take-off climb requirements of paragraph 25.121(c). This will also preclude any ambiguity relative to climb speeds in the take-off configuration which may be faster than V2 if engine failure occurs after a higher speed has been attained with all engines operating.
Note: The FAA NPRM on stall speeds will change some definitions in the FAR's concerning take-off/climb performance, and the value to be established 'for final take-off speed'. Boeing objects to the proposed NPRM value of final take-off speed but does not object to the definition itself. Boeing's AFMs produced after adoption of the NPRM will reflect changes to the performance definition.
Response: This is considered to be a valid and worthwhile clarification which should be adopted. Additionally, as with VREF, we now propose that the detailed definition of 'Final take-off speed' be added to JAR 1-1 and JAR 1-2 be limited to a simple explanation of the symbology 'VFTO'.

3. CONCLUSIONS

The FSG proposes small changes to the suggested definitions of VREF and VFTO in response to the comments received, and to split the definitions between JAR 1.1 and 1.2 to reflect better the existing format of JAR-1. These changes are incorporated in the revised NPA enclosed. They do not alter the technical intent, but the wording and format is now a little different to that which the FAA are understood to be proposing. The FAA should be advised of these editorial differences as they may also consider them appropriate.
The GAMA comments regarding VS1g should be retained pending consultation on those proposals, but are not relevant to NPA 1-2 as such.

 

NPA 1-5

ROTORCRAFT DEFINITIONS
The following indicated agreement with the proposals without comment:-
Transport Canada
SBAC
CAAAustralia
CAADenmark, except to note that the class D load combination should be amended when the ARAC group has finished its work.
Substantive comments were received as follows:-
Westland Helicopters Limited (Mr MFMann, Documentation and Quality Manager Aircraft).
The only comment I have is the use of the word:-
AUXILIARY ROTOR
for control and maintenance of the helicopter this rotor has always been referred to as:-
TAIL ROTOR
I would therefore request that the reference 'Tail Rotor' be annotated for controlling the fore-aft stability and directional control of the helicopter and NOT 'Auxiliary Rotor' as currently been quoted.
Reply:-
While it is noted that the terms 'auxiliary rotor' and 'tail rotor' are used almost equally in JAR/FAR-27 and 29, in order to maintain harmonisation with FAR 1 the defined term will be retained as 'auxiliary rotor'.
JAAOperations Director
As a general comment, it has always been my understanding that, whenever they were acceptable in the JAA context, ICAO definitions should be used wherever possible. This philosophy does not appear to apply in NPA 1-5. With regard to the definitions of 'Category A' and 'Category B', care should be taken to ensure consistency between the definitions in JAR-1 and those contained in JAR-OPS 3.480.
With regard to 'Category A' the corresponding text in JAR-OPS 3 refers to JAR 27/29 and, in view of a number of the comments received on the NPA's for JAR-OPS, perhaps the words 'or equivalent' should be added after the reference to the certification JARs in the definitions.
It is felt that the definition of 'Heliport' should be the one given in ICAOAnnex 6 Part 3, which is as follows:
'An aerodrome or a defined area on a man-made structure intended to be used only or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of helicopters.'
t is felt that the above definition is more comprehensive than that given in FAR proposed JAR-1 and should therefore be adopted by the JAA in preference to the FAA definition.
Reply:-
1 The addition of JAR-27. is agreed.
2. The addition of 'or equivalent' is not agreed because JAR are the design requirements for JAA.
3. Neither the ICAO or FAR definitions of heliport are ideal but since the primary objective of the Helicopter Airworthiness Study Group is to harmonise with FAR the FAR definition should be maintained.

 

NPA 1-7

1. Introduction

NPA 1-7; 'Priority Definitions for JAR-1' was sent out for consultation under the NPA Scheme between 16 December 1994 and 15 April 1995. Comments were received from those persons and organisations listed in Appendix 1 during consultation to NPA 1-7.

2. Background

The NPA proposed a number of definitions for JAR-1, Definitions & Abbreviations. The NPA was developed by the JAA's Definitions Working Group (DEFWG). Its Terms of Reference called for the group to work on ensuring a level of consistency in the use of Terms and Definitions within the JAA system. The urgency for the task stemmed from the fact that definitions relative to Commercial Air Transportation and Aerial Work were needed at the time of the adoption of JAR-OPS.
Based on the Terms of Reference, and the requirements of the JAA's Ops Committee, the WG came up with an agreed priority list of terms that were considered.

3. Analysis of NPA Comments

Of the 17 definitions proposed in the NPA all were commented upon to some extent or another. The following pages provide a summary of those comments and the Definitions WG's response:
General Comments
A number of general points were raised that dealt with either JAR-1 or NPA 1-7 in general.
One commentor preferred to see Notes used in place of advisory material. Legal advice received by the DEFWG suggests that Interpretative and Explanatory Material (IEM) is more appropriate than a note. Readers should note that this Change to JAR-1 has changed ACJs into Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Interpretative and Explanatory Material (IEM). This is in line with the JAR-11 WG's thinking, and clarifies the meaning or status of the material.
In general a number of comments reflected the confusion between the purpose of a definition and a requirement. A definition is not meant to contain requirements.
The layout of the NPA was criticised by one commentor, and this will be reviewed for subsequent NPAs to JAR-1. The same commentor felt that the NPA had not been properly prepared and consulted upon prior to the formal circulation of the NPA. Thus, in their opinion, the NPA should be re-developed and re-circulated. A good deal of co-ordination was achieved between the various technical committees prior to NPA circulation, and thus the DEFWG disagrees with the claim that the internal circulation was inadequate, but recognises that a formal procedure will need to be developed (and then followed by all) as part of JAR-11. The JAR-11 WG has been made aware of this.
Two commentors suggested deleting 'means a...' from the beginning of all definitions for the sake of consistency. In fact the words were included to make the NPA consistent with JAR-1.
In answer to a comment, the DEFWG agrees to take into account the WATOG definitions in its future work.
Harmonisation
Readers will be aware that JAA/FAA Harmonisation is an important goal, and the Terms of Reference for the DEFWG stated that both ICAO and FAA definitions should be used where possible. Where adopted definitions differ from FAR Part 1 the FAA will be advised, and the terms will be proposed as future harmonisation topics. This position answers a number of comments. One commentor, in making reference to the Harmonisation process requested a delay until autumn 1995. Such a long delay is not possible, and the JAA has had to work without that commentors input.
One commentor addressed Harmonisation from the point of view of EU - JAA Harmonisation, recommending that the JAA not deviate from existing EU requirements. The point is noted, and it is within the TofR of the DEFWG to consider what EC requirements exist. The example quoted (Directive 2407/92, (5)(7)(a)), relates to economic regulation, not air safety, and JAR-OPS, whilst not being identical, does not contradict the EC Directive.
Proposal 1; Authority
12 comments were received to this proposal. A number of them indicated that there was confusion (especially from non-native English speakers) as to what 'regulation' means. Confusion centred around the difference between the writing of requirements, and their implementation. This was especially a problem for states with more than one authority. A number of clarifications were proposed to cover the above points. Some proposed that JAR-1 need not even define it, as national law states who does what in each State.
A specific comment on the relationship between the Authority and JAA Teams was made. It should be recalled that PCMs, MAST Teams etc are not 'responsible' for final agreement or adoption; that is the prerogative of the NAA.
After reviewing the various combinations of wording offered by commentors, the DEFWG came to the conclusion that the definition should address the fact that the JAA covers Civil Aviation (the use of capitals is intended to express the widest possible use of the words; the JAAs are involved in safety regulation; and that the term 'competent body' allows for the all possible combinations of regulatory agency.
Proposal 2; Approved and
Proposal 3; Accepted/Acceptable

These proposals caused concern with many commentors, with 29 commentors expressing views on the two terms. Three basic issues arose from the comments:
The need for a definition at all, especially for Accepted; and '..pronounced..' is too weak a word for 'Approved', it must be a written approval; and Consideration of 'indirect approvals', as in JAR-21, must not be forgotten.
One non-JAA NAA (Canada) pointed out that their legal system makes no differentiation between the two types of data. Other JAA-NAAs concurred. In addition, Accepted is also used to indicate when another authority's approval is recognised in Canada.
Any mention of liability should be deleted according to one commentor, as that is strictly a matter for national law in each State. It was not the intention to replace that law, but to draw attention to the issue, that the IEM was added. It is however deleted, and the matter will be raised to the attention of the JAAC instead.
Another point that will be highlighted at JAAC level is that relating to the fact that, once adopted, these proposals will mean that the existing JARs that use the term (e.g. JAR-21, JAR-145 and a number of airworthiness JARs) will have to be reviewed for consistency. One affected group commented that this would involve a 'huge amount' of work.
A number of comments asked for clarification as to whether or not Acceptable and Approval were synonymous with the two proposals. The DEFWG felt that Acceptable was, but Approval should only be used as a noun; i.e. the Approval is the document stating that something or someone is Approved.
Some commentors proposed wording to indicate specific actions that would have to be taken for the NAA's recognition to be either Approved or Accepted. For example, phrases such as '..following thorough review..' and '..following cursory review..', respectively. These were reviewed and the final wording reflects the intent of these comments.
The use of the two terms, and thus two systems, was supported by some, as being a flexible way to do business. However, the comment stating that Accepted implies that an applicant need not wholly comply with a requirement is incorrect. Whether Approved or Accepted, the applicant must comply with all of the relevant requirements.
The DEFWG has retained two terms, has revised Approved from a single word to the phrase Approved by the Authority (this is to address the point about indirect approval), and has included the word 'documented'.
Proposal 4; Commercial Air Transportation and
Proposal 5; Commercial Air Transport Operation

These two proposals generated 19 comments, the bulk of which led the DEFWG to conclude that proposal 5 is redundant, and it was thus deleted.
A number of comments related to the status of the advisory material for corporate aviation and aerial work. Some proposed that it be deleted, whilst others wished to see it in the definition itself. The DEFWG noted the two conflicting positions, but to delete the IEM could cause a conflict in interpretation with related EU texts, whilst its inclusion in the definition would contradict them. Thus the IEM remains as an important clarification that serves to reflect the JAA's intent in this area.
One commentor proposed adding 'mail' to the definition as per ICAO, and one commentor requested that the definitions in EC Regulation 2407/92 be considered. The Regulation does not actually contain a definition of Commercial Air Transportation, but it is obvious, by implication, what they mean. The DEFWG could not see any contradiction between the two terms, but, for the sake of consistency, and to prevent any misunderstanding between JAA & EU requirements and ICAO, the phrase 'or mail', as per ICAO Annex 6, has been added. In any case, the addition (or exclusion) of the term does not appear to have any bearing on safety regulation.
One comment noted that the use of the words 'remuneration' and 'hire', constitutes duplication, and thus the commentor proposed the deletion of 'for hire'. Whilst the DEFWG concurs with the point, the phrase is so well known, and used by ICAO, that it is to be retained.
The comment suggesting that a note be added to clarify that existing national rules apply for aerial work until the adoption of JAR-OPS Part 2 is not adopted even though the commentor is quite correct as this point is not part of a technical requirement or a definition.
Comments received on Proposal 5 led the DEFWG to agree that the term was not necessary and it is deleted. The ICAO Annexes do not contain the term.
The JAA's Operations Committee proposed that the text they had prepared for the JIP to JAR-OPS be included as IEM to cover 'remuneration' and 'cost-sharing'. This was initially agreed in principle, and the OC text was used, with a number of changes. The most significant is the addition of a discriminant to state how many people could be involved in the sharing of the costs. However, a late comment regarding this new IEM No. 2, proposed deletion of such texts as they were not yet mature. The comment recognises that guidance on remuneration and cost sharing is required, but the commentor felt that more work was required. The text is withdrawn.
The DEFWG noted that other commentors had specifically requested that such material be drafted. The JAA could either adopt the current drafts, or work on the topic further without any texts in place. As neither JAR-FCL nor JAR-OPS Part 2 are in place yet, it was agreed that the DEFWG's proposed IEM be withdrawn and worked on in the near future. It was noted that work on 'sight-seeing' in relation to remuneration was also outstanding.
The NPA requested comments on the inclusion/exclusion of Sight-seeing. Only two comments were received, both of which preferred exclusion. However, the DEFWG felt that a decision on the inclusion or exclusion of Sight-seeing, and any associated definitions and/or technical requirements was a long way outside the remit of WG, and it needs to be addressed as a policy matter by Operations Committee / FCL Committee in the future.
Proposal 6; Aerial Work
22 comments were received.
8 commentors responded to the query on the inclusion of 'flight instruction' (the term is revised from ..flying instruction.. following comments on consistency with JAR-FCL), by proposing its removal from the definition, especially where it was performed privately, or for non-profit clubs. Five commentors proposed splitting the definition into two; one for Commercial Aerial Work, and another for Private Aerial Work. The DEFWG agreed not to make such a distinction as it believes that to perform such activities some specific training or technical expertise is needed. It is proposed that when devising the applicable operational requirements, consideration be given to separate 'commercial' and 'private' Aerial Work definitions.
Some comments on the list of examples of what Aerial Work is, led the DEFWG to expand and improve the list, move it to an IEM, and to add a clarification that the list is not exhaustive.
A comment on the applicability of the definition to balloon flights for charity or sponsored purposes was not adopted as JAR-OPS does not cover balloons yet. A policy decision by the JAA on how to handle these flights may be needed to be taken elsewhere. In the opinion of the DEFWG, such flights are not a specialised service, and are thus not Aerial Work.
The list of examples when additional persons may be carried, in the IEM, was improved in line with a number of comments, some of which were editorial, but others served to better explain the intent. A new example was added to cover the carriage of students during flight instruction. The first sentence of the advisory material is deleted following comments that suggested it was more severe than its parent requirement.
The phrase '..a limited number of persons..' gave rise to a number of comments requesting clarification, and in one case recommending deletion as it is, in the opinion of the commentor, a requirement. The latter point is not agreed with as the DEFWG saw it as a qualification to the text, not a requirement in itself. The potential for abuse was cited by some as a reason for rewording the text from '..limited number..' to '.. only persons undertaking an essential function..', '..a number agreed by the Authority..'. This is agreed in principle, and more suitable wording has been introduced.
A comment on the difference in standards between Aerial Work with or without additional persons on board was not understood by the WG.
One commentor's point expressing surprise at the imposition of additional requirements for non-commercial aerial work when no passengers are carried as compared to the lack of requirements for a non-commercial passenger flight is not understood. These definitions do not impose requirements, this is for the JARs to do, and JAR-OPS Part 2 will prescribe requirements necessary for all aspects of non-commercial aviation, as appropriate.
The same commentor then stated that IEM No.1 to the proposed definition 'blurred' the distinction between aerial work and commercial passenger carriage. The DEFWG disagrees, and feels that the examples are realistic and do no more than reflect the current understanding of aerial work. The example (c) will be improved to make this more obvious.
After a review of the comments and a detailed discussion, the DEFWG modified the definition so that it is simply related to the technical aspects of what aerial work is, and does not address remuneration at all. This answered most of the questions on the status of Aerial Work, and the relationship between what is private and what is commercial. The IEM will also be modified to remove reference to 'cargo' - the purpose of the IEM is to address restrictions on additional persons. However, this all assumes that JAR-OPS & JAR-FCL will address the differences between remunerated activities and private ones.
This means that a number of comments have not been fully addressed as they will need to be considered as part of the work relating to Commercial and/or Private Aerial Work. They will be forwarded to the relevant drafting groups for their review prior to the commencement of that work.
However, following the above, the JAAC, during the adoption of the NPA, decided that the ICAO Annex VI definition should be used, and JAR-1 now reflects this decision. This implies that the draft definition and proposed IEM are withdrawn in favour of the ICAO text.
Proposal 7; Corporate Aviation
Two commentors proposed to delete the term as it is not covered by JAR-OPS yet. However, such a definition is considered a necessary complement to the definition of Commercial Air Transportation, and the DEFWG continued with its development of a definition.
During the Regulation Advisory Panel's review of the DEFWG's output, it was agreed, for the time being, to remove the term pending the JAAC's advice on a policy view for the future. The Panel's concerns centred on the differing treatment of Corporate Aviation in JAA States.
The removal of the definition is seen as a short term measure as the JAA will need such a definition once the Operations Committee starts to work on Corporate Aviation requirements.
Proposal 8; Maintenance
The DEFWG can respond to the three commentors that the design of repairs and modifications is indeed excluded from the definition of maintenance.
A comment was received that proposed defining Maintenance from the point of view of 'maintaining airworthiness' and 'preservation'. These concepts had been already been discussed by the DEFWG, prior to the NPA, and rejected as it may happen that tasks be carried out quite satisfactorily on an aircraft, and the aircraft itself will still remain, as the result of other defects, unairworthy. In addition, maintenance is also carried out on parts (including engines) that have been removed from the aircraft. The engine may be airworthy, but the aircraft its being installed on may not be.
One commentor proposed the inclusion of the word 'servicing', but the DEFWG felt the word to be too vague, and added little to the understanding of what Maintenance is.
The DEFWG concluded that the JAR-145 definition of Maintenance, plus pre-flight, is moved into JAR-1. JAR-145 & JAR-OPS already exclude those carrying out pre-flight checks from requiring a JAR-145 approval. This was seen as giving the JAA a descriptive term for what Maintenance is, whilst allowing individual JARs to regulate Maintenance. The Maintenance Committee subsequently objected to this, and the JAR-145 text is now used in JAR-1 without modification. It is noted that the JAA will have to work on JAR-OPS Subpart M in order to make it consistent with JAR-145/JAR-1.
Proposal 9; Aircraft
Three comments were received; two of which were purely editorial points, the acceptance of which would lead to minor differences with the proposed term that is identical to ICAO. The comments are thus not adopted.
The other two comments noted that the definition would include such devices as kites etc. The DEFWG agrees that this is the case, but it is not the intent of the JAA to regulate kites. The point that the definition includes hovercraft is not correct, as they derive support from a reaction against the surface of the earth, and are thus excluded.
The originally proposed term, identical to ICAO, is adopted.
Proposal 10; Aircraft Type
All of the 10 comments received proposed that individual definitions of Aircraft Type and Category be placed in each relevant JAR, rather than as set out in the NPA.
In its discussion, the DEFWG noted it should avoid unnecessary duplication. It was thus agreed to include a definition in JAR-1 which would indicate where definitions could be found for each particular discipline, and let the specialist committees devise the appropriate term. To this end, those comments received on this proposal will be forwarded to the committees in question for their consideration. This method has the benefit of avoiding duplication, in terms of text at least, whilst allowing readers to see in which JARs the term is defined.
Proposal 11; Category
All of the 10 comments received proposed that individual definitions of Aircraft Type and Category be placed in each relevant JAR, rather than as set out in the NPA.
In its discussion, the DEFWG again noted it should avoid unnecessary duplication. It was thus agreed to include a definition in JAR-1 which would indicate where definitions could be found for each particular discipline, and let the specialist committees devise the appropriate term. To this end, those comments received on this proposal will be forwarded to the committees in question for their consideration. This method has the benefit of avoiding duplication, in terms of text at least, whilst allowing readers to see in which JARs the term is defined.
Proposal 12; Engine Type
One commentor felt that this term should not be defined until Engine has been defined. The commentor is referred to page 1-4 of JAR-1 @ Change 4.
Three commentors disagreed with the proposal on the basis that they felt it to be too vague, not useful, and redundant respectively. As not all the comments were explained it is difficult to understand why it is redundant. However, the DEFWG noted that a simple definition had been developed so that it could be used in association with more than one JAR. As the term is only required for type certification (JAR-65 & JAR-145 needs are based on the certification of the product), it was decided that the best solution was to retain a simple definition, but to add a cross-reference to JAR-21.
Proposal 13; Aircraft Variant
As with proposals 10 & 11, comments were received questioning whether the term would be better defined in the respective JARs. The DEFWG preferred to try and define a term that would work for JAR-OPS and JAR-FCL, at least. A number of editorial corrections are noted and are incorporated.
A comment proposing that certifying staff be included was rejected as the NPA to JAR-65 (NPA 65-0) did not indicate that Aircraft Variant would be required. Additionally, the term is probably not needed for JAR-21 (the DEFWG understands that the JAR-21 WG has plans to propose the withdrawal of the word from JAR-21).
The addition of familiarisation training is not agreed as it would constitute a repetition of the requirement, not a definition. The difference between a 1-pilot VFR and a 2-pilot IFR aircraft is a certification matter that the airworthiness JARs address. The proposal to add Class is, in principle, agreed, and the next DEFWG NPA (NPA 1-8) will propose a term.
As some uncertainty remains as to the acceptability of the definition in relation to cabin crew in JAR-OPS 1.1010 and JAR-OPS 1.1030. The JAA's Ops Committee has been tasked to review the matter and propose a text for future consideration, as necessary.
Proposal 14; Commuter Category Aeroplane
A number of comments were received stating that the definition did not have a lower weight limit for the category, and that one was needed. Other modifications were proposed to avoid it covering aircraft such as the Cessna 337. One commentor preferred to see the term only in JAR-23.
In addition, commentors proposed the use of the term 'maximum certificated seating configuration', adding a cross-reference to JAR 23.1524, and to include a number of the requirements in the definition.
In answer to the query on the status of the Trislander aircraft, the DEFWG believes that, strictly speaking, it is not a JAR-23 aeroplane. Should a similar type ever be offered for type certification, then the applicant would probably have to agree to develop a set of Special Conditions for JAR-23.
The DEFWG, felt that the best response to all of the above points would be to delete the existing JAR-1 term and make reference to the relevant parts of JAR-23 in the definition of Large Aeroplane (which itself already excludes commuters in a part of the text).
Proposal 15; Helicopter
NPA 1-7 proposed using the FAA's definition, but six of the seven comments received proposed that the JAA use the ICAO definition. The other commentor proposed an entirely new version based neither on ICAO or FAR, which was rejected.
No compelling arguments for change were offered by commentors. As the Terms of Reference state that JAR-1 definitions should be either ICAO or FAA, and as JAR-27 & JAR-29 are very close to the corresponding FARs, the FAA-derived definition is retained.
Proposal 16; Flight Time
10 Comments were received to this proposal. A number of them noted that the definition was not suitable in the context of its current use, especially for helicopters (a comment that Flight Time commenced 'once the rotors were turning' was received). In addition, commentors felt that the terms needed defining in each individual JAR where the term is used. For example, one commentor noted that engine running time needed defining separately as it would be different from the proposal. Another requested that the case of abandoned take-offs be taken into account.
Four main cases were discernable from the comments; block-to-block (as defined in WATOG), airborne time (also in WATOG), functioning time (e.g engine running time), and helicopter Flight Time (as proposed for JAR-OPS Part 3, Subpart Q - to take into account hover taxying and rotor running turnarounds).
The DEFWG concluded that the best solution was to define Flight Time in the same way as for Aircraft Type, and leave it to the main committees to define what they needed for their particular discipline. This will require the relevant proposals to be developed by those committees at a later stage.
Proposal 17; Flight
7 Comments were received to this proposal. Those who had proposed the deletion of Proposal 16 also felt this definition to be unnecessary.
Comments proposed to add the relevant term for rotorcraft, pilotless flying machines, and editorial improvements to the term for balloons. Two commentors appeared to misunderstand the proposal by stating that the term meant that aeroplanes and rotorcraft never flew. The point was that as Proposal 16 was geared to powered aeroplanes and helicopters, so a text would be need for those other types of aircraft.
Since the NPA, the FCL Committee has decided not to draft requirements for gliders, airships or GA balloons. In light of this, and following on from Proposal 16 above, the term is deleted for the time being. The comments will be passed to the relevant committees as part of the task relating to Proposal 16 for further development as necessary.
Comments to Explanatory Note & Other Comments
Those comments made on the Explanatory Note and those comments proposing that new definitions be developed will be built into the DEFWG's future work programme (yet to be drafted). These comments will be reviewed at that later time and are thus not forgotten.

List of Commentors to NPA 1-7

AECMA
AEI
Air New Zealand
Allan, Mr R
Austrian Airlines
BAe College
BGA, UK
BHAB, UK
Boeing
CAA, UK
Cabair Helicopters
DGAC, France
DGAC, Spain
EBAA
EGU
ERA
Europe Airsports
JAA Engine Study Group
JAA FCL Committee/Director
JAA Maintenance Committee/Director
JAA Operations Committee
FAI
FOCA, Switzerland
GAMA, US
GAMTA, UK
GE Capital Aviation Services
IAA, Ireland
ICCA
LFV, Finland
LFV, Norway
LFV, Sweden
McDonnell Douglas
MOT, Austria
MOT, Germany
Northern Executive Aviation
RLD, The Netherlands
SLV, Denmark
Transport Canada

 

NPA 25D-181 REV.3
RESISTANCE TO FIRE TERMINOLOGY

This NPA is sponsored by the D&F Study Group and its need arises from difficulties encountered by some applicants with various paragraphs of JAR-25. The Power Plant Study Group has also been involved in the preparation of this NPA.
The application of the definitions of 'Fireproof' and 'Fire-resistant' to certain areas of the aircraft is inappropriate and over-severe.
For guidance purposes the definitions have been amended to provide reference to an equivalent means of compliance involving the resistance to fire capability of certain materials.
The intent to adopt primarily the classic 'temperature/time' arbitrary definitions of 'Fireproof' and 'Fire-resistant' is in line with current practices used by world aviation authorities and manufacturers.
The definition of 'a flame' referred to in the revised definitions of Fireproof and Fire-resistant in JAR-1 are similar to both the FAA definition given in their draft AC on this subject and that contained in ISO/DIS 2685. The difference in the temperatures given in the two standards can be considered as negligible.
The JAR-25 revisions in this Orange Paper Amendment are complemented by revisions to JAR-1 which will be prepared as soon as possible. In the meantime, the texts to be put in JAR-1 are shown below:-
(These definitions will allow the deletion of the French National Variants.)
JAR-1 pages 1-5 and 1-9
Revise the definitions of 'Fireproof' and 'Fire-resistant' on page 1-5 as follows:
(a) 'Fireproof' with respect to materials, components, and equipment means the capability to withstand the application of heat by a flame, for a period of 15 minutes without any failure that would create a hazard to the aircraft. The flame will have the following characteristics:
Temperature 1100C 80C
Heat Flux Density 116 kW/m2 10 kW/m2
Note: For materials this is considered to be equivalent to the capability of withstanding a fire at least as well as steel or titanium in dimensions appropriate for the purposes for which they are used.
(b) Fire-resistant' with respect to materials, components and equipment means the capability to withstand the application of heat by a flame, as defined for 'Fireproof', for a period of 5 minutes without any failure that would create a hazard to the aircraft.
Note:For materials this may be considered to be equivalent to the capability of withstanding a fire at least as well as aluminium alloy in dimensions appropriate for the purposes for which they are used.
(c) Delete 'Standard Flame' and the definition on page 1-9 for JAR-1.


LAST UPDATE:  11 April 2007
AUTHOR:  Prof. Dr. Scholz
E-Mail-Address
home  Prof. Dr. Scholz
home  Aircraft Design and Systems Group (AERO)
home  Aeronautical Engineering   deutsch
home  Department of Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering  deutsch
home  Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science
home  Hamburg University of Applied Sciences